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"Where was the Protestant religion before Luther?" 
is a question that has often been asked with an air of 
confidence and triumph, by the advocates of a church 
which claims to be the only infallible expounder of the 
word of God. The object of the following essay is to 
answer this question, and to retort the charge of novel- 
ty in religion, on those who make such arrogant claims 
for the antiquity of their church. 

The importance of the question will be evident to 
every one who considers, that it relates not merely to 
some unessential doctrines, or external observances, 
but to the very foundation of a sinner's hope. If the 
Popish system be true, Protestants are left to the " un- 
covenanted mercies of God ;" without a ministry, with- 
out sacraments, without hope ! If it is false, how awful 
is the delusion, and how imminent the danger of those 
who rest all their hopes of salvation upon it ! 

That the discussion is seasonable, must be apparent 
to all who are awake to the signs of the times. Zealous 
emissaries, backed by foreign influence, and aided by 
foreign gold, are coming in like a flood, to poison the 
fountains of education, and to bring the civil and reli- 



gious liberties of this happy land into subjection to a 
foreign ecclesiastical despotism. 

The original ^vork, from which the following treatise 
is extracted, consists of a series of discourses, on the 
principal errors of Popery, styled the "Cripplegate Lec- 
tures," which were delivered by eminent English di- 
vines, in and near London, about the end of the seven- 
teenth century. The discourses bear ample testimony 
to the learning, judgment and piety of their authors. 

In preparing the work for the press, some liberty 
has been taken in retrenching irrelevant matter, and 
in somewhat modernizing the style. Should it be ob- 
jected that the quotations made from catholic authors- 
are of ancient date, and that the Popish religion of the 
nineteenth century is very different from that of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth, it would not be difficult to 
produce from catholic works, printed hy authority^ in 
this city, within a year or two, sentiments as unscrip- 
tural as any quoted in this work. Besides, the objec- 
tion would come with a very ill grace from those who 
boast that their church is always and every where the 
same — " Nulla vestigia retrorsum,^^ 




For the better understanding of the matter in 
hand, I shall premise the seven following propo- 


That the ordinary way in which lost sinners, 
since the fall of Adam, have been recovered and 
restored to life and salvation, as to the essentials of 
the covenant of grace, has, in all ages, been one and 
the same. For though God has, " at sundry times 
and in divers manners," revealed his will to his 
church, yet the covenant of grace, under various ex- 
ternal dispensations, has been the same;* under the 
law, administered by promises, prophecies, sacrifices, 
and circumcision, the paschal lamb, and other types 

* Ea quippe fides justos servavit anliquos, quoe et nos. i. e. Me- 
diatoris Dei et hominis Jcsu Christi. Aug. de Natur. et Grat . 
cap. 44. Ileb. i. 1 : TroKv/unpZi; kai TroxvrpoTrag. 

A 2 


and ordinances, delivered to the people of the Jews,* 
all pointing at Christ to come; under the Gospel, by 
the preaching of the word, and administration of 
the sacraments, Baptism, and the Lord^s Supper, 
Avhich is observed in commemoration of the death 
of Christ, already past. The way to heaven through 
Christ, has been the same, successively from Adam 
to our days, and will be the same to the end of the 
world; which we might learn from the perfect agree- 
ment between the doctrine of Moses and the pro- 
phets, and Christ and his apostles; for these, de- 
claring the whole counsel of God, Acts xviii. 27, 
yet preached no new doctrine concerning Christ 
and salvation by him, but what Moses and the pro- 
phets said, and that also in reference to the Gentiles, 
as well as to the Jews, Acts xxvi. 22, 23. To be- 
lieve in Christ, to love God above all, to repent, and 
mortify sin, to be sanctified and renewed after the 
image of God, to be obedient to the will of God, 
has been ^* the good way'^ from of old. The change 
in outward administrations made by Christ and the 
apostles, did not make a new way to heaven, though 
the old dispensations then ceased, and gave place to 
those appointed by Christ, which, with the doc- 
trines of the apostles, are retained in the reformed 
church, but are depraved, corrupted, and departed 

* Christi veri sacrificii multiplicia variaque signa erant sacri- 
ficia prisca sanctorum, cum hoc unum per multa figuraretur, 
tanquam verbis multis res una diceretur, ut sine fastidio mul- 
tum commendatur. Aug. de Civit: Dei, lib. 10: cap. 20. 


from by the church of Rome, as will appear by the 
parallel of doctrines. 


Antiquity is not a mark of a true church. A 
church of long standing and continuance, succes- 
sively from age to age, might be a false church. 
The church of Rome, contrary to all reason, makes 
antiquity a mark,* whereby a true church may be 
knov/n; and, contrary to all history, brags of her 
own antiquity. But that which is a mark to distin- 
guish one thing from another, must be foundt in 
one kind, in all of that kind, only in that kind, and 
yet always in it; as a man has two feet, but thereby 
cannot be distinguished from some other creatures, 
because this is common to birds as well as men. So 
to be skilful in music, is proper only to man, but is 
not found in every man, and therefore is no mark 
to know a man by; for one that is no musician, is a 
true and real man, as well as he that is. 

Antiquity, alone considered, will fall short of a 

* Secunda nota ecclesiae est antiquitas; nostra autem ecclesia, 
quam adversarii papisticam vocant, est ilia ipsa quam Christus 
instituit, et proinde vetustior omnibus sectis hajreticorum. Bell, 
de Concil. et Eccles. 1. 4. c. 5. 

t Proprium convenit soli alicui speciei, omnibnsque illius in- 
dividuis et semper. Tres notarum conditiones ponit, Bellarm. 
1. Debent esse propriae,non communes. 2. Debentesse notiores 
c'dL re cujus sunt nota;, alioqui non sunt nota^, sod ignota\ 3. 
Sunt.inseparabiles i\ vcrti ecclesiti. Dc Concil. ct Eccles. Lib. 
4. cap. 2. 


demonstration or evidence, that the church of Rome 
is the only true church, upon these two grounds or 

1. Because antiquity is separable from a true 
church; as the church of God in Adam^s days, was 
a true church, and yet it was not then an ancient 
church. And the Christian church, in the apostles^ 
days, was a true Christian church, and yet it was 
not then an ancient Christian church, any more than 
an infant newly born, may be said to be an old man; 
and yet it is a true man, though not old. 

2. Because antiquity is not only separable from 
a true church, but is also common to other things 
now, as well as to a true church. It might even be 
spoken of the synagogue of Satan; for Satan has had 
his followers in the world for many thousand years; 
and there have been many v/icked and ungodly 
societies of men, far more ancient than the church 
of Rome, or any pope at the head of it. So that the 
antiquity which the church of Rome boasts of, but 
does not possess, cannot prove it to be the true 
church of Christ, any more than the synagogue of 


Antiquity is not a mark of true doctrine; for al- 
though all truth is more ancient than error (which 
is a corruption of truth), yet every doctrine that is 
old,* or of many hundred years' standing is not 

* Quodcunque adversus veritalem sapit, hoc erit hasresis, 
etiam vetus consuetude. Tertul. de Virg. Veland. 


therefore true; for there are old errors, and old he- 
resies; some of them more ancient than those that 
are properly and formally popish errors. There 
are the old errors and heresies of Cerinthus, Ebion, 
Arius, and many more, of an earlier original, than 
the main doctrines of popery, that are essential to 
that religion; and if we judge of doctrines merely 
by antiquity, many heresies have the precedency 
of popery. Since then w^ickedness and error can 
plead antiquity of many ages; it is plain that anti- 
quity is a praise or dispraise, according to the na- 
ture of the thing of w^hich it is spoken; if it be 
good, the older, the better; if it be bad, the older, 
the worse; continuance in sin being an aggravation 
of it; as an old swearer, an old drunkard or idolater 
is worse than one that has lately taken up such wick- 
ed practices. Antiquity of doctrine and worship 
without truth and purity being but* grey-headed 
error and sin, it follows that the longer the church 
of Rome has practised such worship, and taught 
such doctrines, she is not so venerable for her anti- 
quity, as vile for her iniquity. 


Some of the popish doctrines, and some parts of 
popish worship are older, and of a longer standing 
than others. Rome was not built in one day; and 
the body and system of popish doctrine, as it is 

* Consuetudo sine veritato, vetustas crroris est. Cypr. Epist. 
ad Pompeium. 


now held, was not finished in one age. Popery- 
came in by degrees, and antichrist rose to his pre^ 
sent height, step by step. The question* propound- 
ed by the papists to be resolved by the protestants, 
who was the first pope that brought in their reli- 
gion, and who was the first that made all the inno- 
vations we complain of? is ridiculous and absurd, 
supposing that to be introduced into the church by 
one man, in one age, which was brought in gradual- 
ly, by many men, in many ages. 


Those things that are essential to our religion, are 
owned by the papists themselves; for they profess to 
own the Scripture to be the word of God, and cer- 
tainly true; but they add their own traditions, things 
not contained in the Scripture, as necessary to 
salvation; which we cannot receive. They own 
Christ to be the head of the church, and so do we; 
but they add that the pope is the head of the uni- 
versal church also, which we deny; they own bap- 
tism and the Lord^s supper, and so do we; but they 
add five sacraments more, which we reject. They 
own that there is a heaven and a hell, as well as 
we; but they teach that there is a place distinct 

* In omni insigni mutatione religionis semper ista sex demon- 
etrari possunt, 1. Auctor ejus. 2. Dogma aliquod novum. 3. 
Tempus quo coepit 4. Locus ubi coBpit. 5. Quis earn oppug- 
naverit. 6. Exiguus aliquis coetus, unde paulatim aliis acc§- 
dentibus, cceperit. Nihil autem horum de nobis ostendere pos« 
sunt, (HaBretici). Bellarm. de Concil. et Eccles, lil), 4. capr 5. 


from both, in which the souls of believers were 
before Christ's death; and that there is a purga- 
tory, and a place for the souls of infants, distinct 
from heaven and hell; all which we deny. They 
own the merits of Christ, and so do we; but they 
add their own merits, which we deny; and so in 
other points. So that the controversy between us 
and them is not, whether what we hold is true and 
old; for that is granted by the papists themselves,* 
as to the essential parts of our religion; but about 
what they have invented, and added to the true re- 
ligion. All our religion is contained in the Scrip- 
ture, and what is there, we own, and nothing else, 
as necessary to salvation. The sum of our religion 
is comprehended in the ten commandments, creed, 
and Lord^s prayer, which the papists also confess 
and own. So that our religion is past dispute, and 
is in a manner granted to us. But whether the 
popish doctrines as such, are true and old, is the 
very controversy between us and them. 


The reformation of the church does not consist 
in bringing in new things, but in casting them out, 
and lopping them off. It is a gross mistake that in 

^ Nota secundo ea quce sunt simpliciter necessaria, apostolos 
consuevisse omnibus praedicare, — Dico, ilia omnia scripta esse 
ab apostolis, quce sunt omnibus necessaria, et qucc ipsi palam 
omnibus vulgo praedicaverunt. Bell, de Verb. Dei. Lib. 4. 
cap. 11. 


the reformation, in and since Luther's time, the 
church has brought in new doctrines, and rejected 
the old. On the contrary she has cast away the 
new, and retains the old. Gold and dross were 
mixed together; the jewel of truth was hid under 
the filth of corrupt doctrines. Our reformers kept 
the jewel and the gold, and cast the dross and filth 
away. The reception of the old doctrine, and the 
rejection of the new, is that which constituted the 
reformation. And if the church of Rome would 
own what is in the Scripture, and no more, as ne- 
cessary to salvation, and would cut off the new, 
which they have added to the old, we and they 
should be of the same religion. Our religion was 
perfect and complete before the doctrine and the 
w^orship of the church of Rome (as it now is) were 
in being. 


To know which is the old religion and w^hich 
the new, we must keep to the w^ord* of God, as 
the rule and test. What is not in the word of 
God, either expressly, or by just, immediate, ne- 
cessary consequence, and yet is made necessary to 
salvation, is certainly a new religion, though it has 
been taught many hundred years. Thus all false 
gods, though long since served and worshipped, are 
called "new gods, that newly came up,^' Deut. 

* Si ad divinsD traditionis caput, et originem revertamur, ces- 
sat error humanus. Cypr. Epist. ad Pomp. 


xxxii. 17. The old religion then must be examined 
by the old rule, the Holy Scriptures; so that to de- 
termine this, we need not run to the canons of the 
church, to the councils of men, to the decrees of the 
pope, or to the writings of the fathers, which are all 
fallible, and of later standing than the word of God. 
When therefore the papists ask us, "Where was 
your religion before Luther?" we may confidently 
answer, " Where your religion never was, nor will 
be found; and that is, in the Holy Scriptures, which 
w^ere written long before Luther was born, or the 
pope either." 



The second general head in the method pro- 
posed^ is to give a parallel of doctrines taught by 
the prophets, Christ, and his apostles; by the pro- 
testants or reformed church; and by the papists or 
the church of Rome. The first shall be laid dov^n 
in the very words of Scripture; the second out of 
the public confessions of faith of the reformed 
churches; and the third out of the writings and de- 
cretals of the popes, councils, cardinals, and other 
doctors approved by the church of Rome. By all 
which, these three things will be made manifest: 
1. That the doctrine of protestants is the same that 
was taught by Christ and his apostles. 2. That 
therefore it was long before Luther. 3. That the 
doctrine of the church of Rome, differing from, and 
being contrary to the doctrine of Christ and his 
apostles, must be a novelty. 

I. Concerning the Perfection and Sufficiency of 
the Scripture unto Salvation. 

1. The doctrine of the prophets, Christ and the 
apostles concerning this point: 

Deut. xii. 32. What thing soever I command you, 
observe to do it; thou shalt not add thereto, nor di- 
minish from it. Psal. xix. 7. The law of the Lord 


is perfect, converting the soul. John xx. 31. But 
these are written, that ye might believe that Jesus 
is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing ye 
might have life through his name. Gal. i. 8. But 
though we or an angel from heaven preach any 
other gospel unto you, than that which we have 
preached unto you, let him be accursed. 9. As I 
said before, so say I now again, if any man preach 
any other gospel to you, than that ye have re- 
ceived, let him be accursed. 2 Tim. iii. 15. And 
that from a child thou hast known the Holy Scrip- 
tures, which are able to make thee wise unto salva- 
tion, through faith which is in Christ Jesus. 16. All 
Scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is 
profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, 
for instruction in righteousness; 17. That the man 
of God may be perfect, thoroughly furnished unto all 
good works. Rev. xxii. 18. For I testify unto 
every man that heareth the words of the prophecy 
of this book, if any man shall add unto these things, 
God shall add unto him the plagues that are written 
in this book. 19. And if any man shall take away 
from the words of the book of this prophecy, God 
shall take away his part out of the book of life, and 
out of the holy city, and from the things which are 
written in this book. 

2. The doctrine of the reformed churches con- 
cerning the perfection and sufficiency of the Scrip- 
ture unto salvation. 

"The Holy Scripture contains all things necessary 


for salvation; so that w^hatsoever is not read therein, 
nor may be proved thereby, is not to be required of 
any man, that it should be believed as an article of 
the faith, or be thought requisite and necessary to 

"It is not lavvrful for the church to ordain any 
thing, that is contrary to God's word:— as it ought 
not to decree any thing against the same, so besides 
the same, ought it not to enforce any thing to be 
believed for necessity of salvation/'t 

" The whole counsel of God concerning all things 
necessary for his own glory, man's salvation, faith 
and life, is either expressly set down in Scripture, or 
by good and necessary consequence may be deduced 
from Scripture; unto which nothing at any time is 
to be added, whether by new revelations of the 
Spirit, or traditions of men/'J 

" The canonical Scripture, or the word of God de- 
livered by the Holy Ghost, and by the prophets and 
apostles propounded to the world, is the most per- 
fect and ancient philosophy, and doth alone perfectly 
contain all piety, all rule of life.''§ 

The reformed church in France, thus.|| "Where- 
as the word of God is the sum of all truth, con- 

* Church of England. Artie. 6. t Artie. 20. 

I Assemb. Confession of Faith. 

§ Confessio Helvet. Sjnta. Confes. p. 67. 

II Quum verbum Dei sit omnis veritatis summa, complectens 
quicquid ad cultum Dei et salutem nostram requiritur, neque 
horainibus, neque ipsis etiam angelis fas esse dieimus quicquam 


taining whatsoever is requisite to the worship of 
God and our salvation; we affirm that it is not 
lawful for men or angels either to add any thing 
to it, or take away any thing from it, nor to change 
any thing at all therein; from whence it follows, 
that it is not lawful to set, either antiquity, or 
custom, or a multitude, or human wisdom, opi- 
nions, decrees, councils, or visions, or miracles, in 
opposition to divine Scripture; but rather that all 
things ought to be examined and tried according to 
this rule, and what is prescribed therein. ^^ 

The Belgic Confession thus.* " We believe that 
the Holy Scripture doth perfectly contain the will of 
God, and that whatsoever is necessary to be be- 
lieved by men, for the obtaining of salvation, is suf- 
ficiently taught therein. For when it is forbidden 
that any should add to it, or take away from it, 
thereby is abundantly demonstrated, that the doc- 
trine thereof is most perfect, and every way com- 

ei verbo adjicere, vel detrahere, vel quicquam prorsus in eo im- 
mutare. Ex hoc autem efficitur, neque antiquitatem, neque 
consuetudines, neque multitudinem, neque humanam sapien- 
liam, neque judicia, neque edicta vel decreta ulla, neque con- 
cilia, neque visiones, neque miracula, Scripturse illi divince op- 
ponere licere : sed potius omnia ad ejus regulam et prajscriptuin 
examinari et exigi oportere, Gallic. Confes. in Syntag. Confes 
p. 78. 

* Credimus sacrara hanc scripturam, Dei voluntatem per- 
fectc complecti, et quodcunque ab hominibus, ut salute ni con- 
sequantur, credi necesse est, in illii sufficienter edoceri: — Quum 

B 2 


The Wittemberg Confession,'^ "That all doctrine 
necessary to be known by us in order to true and 
eternal salvation is not contained in the Scripture 
is sooner said than proved/' 

To add no more, by these it is evident that in 
this point the reformed churches not only agree 
among themselves, but also with the prophets and 
apostles, teaching herein the same doctrine that 
Christ and they did, which was the thing to be 

3. The doctrine of the papists concerning the 
perfection and sufficiency of the Scripture. 

The Council of Trent declared,! " That the doc- 
trine of the gospel is contained in the written word^ 
and in unwritten traditions, and that they receive 
and honour the unwritten traditions, whether ap- 
pertaining to faith, or manners, with the same re- 

enim vetitura sit, ne quis Dei verbo quicquam addat, aut detra- 
hatj satis eo ipso demonstratur. doctrinam illius perfectissimam, 
omnibusque raodis consummatam esse. Belg. Eccles. Confes- 
Sjntag. p. 131. 

* In h^c Scriptura non contineri omnem doctrinam, nobis 
ad veram et perpetuam salutem cognitu necessariamj videtur 
facilius posse dici. quam probari. Wittemb. Confes. Syntag. p- 

t Sacrosancta, Tridentina sjnodus. perspiciens banc verita- 
tem [evangelii] et disciplinam contineri in libris scriptis, et 
sine scripto traditionibus, omnes libros tarn veteris quam novi 
Testamenti, ncc non traditiones ipsas, turn ad fidem, turn ad 
mores pertinentes, pari pietatis affectu ac reverentiri suscipit 
et veneratur. Concil. Trident. Sess. 4. 


verence and holy affection, as they do all the books 
of the Old and New Testament/' 

The Canon law says,* '' That men do with such 
reverence respect the apostolical seat of Rome, that 
they rather desire to know the ancient institution 
of the Christian religion from the pope's mouth, 
than from the Holy Scripture, and the traditions of 
the fathers; and they only inquire what is his 
pleasure, and according to it, they order their life 
and conversation/' Again,t " that the [pope's] de- 
cretal epistles are to be numbered with canonical 

Dr. Standish, in his book against English Bibles, 
says, " Take from them the English damnable 
translations, and let them learn to give as much 
credit, to that which is not expressed, as to that 
which is expressed in the Scripture." 

Melchior Canus writes,J " That many things be- 

* Et revera tantci reverentid apicem praefatae apostolicae sedis 
omnes suspiciunt, ut antiquam Christiana? religionis institu- 
tionem magis ab ore praecessoris ejus, quani a sacris paginis, 
et paternis traditionibus expetant: illius velle, illiiis nolle tan- 
tum explorant, ut ad ejus arbitrium suam conversationem et ipsi 
remittant, aut intendant. Corp. Jur. Canon. Dist. 40. si Papa 
in Annot. 

t Inter canonicas Scripturas decretales epistolae connumeran- 
tur. Corp. Juris. Canon. Dist. 19, cap. 6. 

t Multa pertinere ad Christianorum fidem et doctrinam quae 
nee aperte, nee obscure, in sacris literis continentur. — Sancto- 
rum martyrum auxiliuin precibus implorandum, eorunique me- 
morias celebrandas, imagines venerandas esse, in sacrificio 
eucharistiae simul cum corpore sanguincm sacerdotibus esse et 


long to Christian faith and doctrinej which are 
neither plainly nor obscurely contained in Holy 
Scripture/^ And he gives particular instances, 
" That the help of the holy martyrs should be craved 
by prayer, and their memories celebrated, and their 
images worshipped, &c., is not perhaps taught in the 
Holy Scripture, and yet the catholic church as firm- 
ly holds these and many other doctrines as if they 
were written in Holy Scripture/^ Again he says, 
" There is more efficacy for the confutation of here- 
tics in tradition, than in Scripture/^ Again, " Al- 
most all disputations with heretics should be re- 
ferred to the traditions received from our fore- 

Cardinal Hosius speaks out, saying,* "The great- 
est part of the gospel is come to us by tradition, 
very little of it is committed to writing/^ 

This plainly shows that the doctrine of the pa- 
pists in this, is expressly contrary to the doctrine of 

conficiendum, et sumendum, &c., Sacrae literas nusquam forte 
tradiderunt. At ejusmodi atque alia pleraque id genus, ita firmi- 
ter ecclesia catholica retinet, ut si sacris codicibus fuissent in- 
scripta : Melch. Can. Loc. Theolog. lib. 3. cap. 3. Adde, quod 
ad confutandos hcereticos major vis in traditione, quam in Scrip- 
tura est. — Quorsum haec tarn longo sermone repetita.'' Nempe 
ut intelligas, non modo adversum hsereticos plus habere tradi- 
tionem, quam Scripturara virium, sed etiam omnem ferme cum 
hsereticis disputationem ad traditiones a majoribus acceptas esse 
referendam : Ibid. 

* Multoque maxima pars evangelii pervenit ad nos traditione, 
perexigua Uteris est mandata. Hosius Confes. Fid. Cathol. cap. 
92. pag. 133. fol. 


the prophets, Christ, and his apostles, and that the 
doctrine of the protestants is the very same with the 
doctrine of Christ and the apostles. Let the reader 
compare them together, and he will see the agree- 
ment of the one, and the contrariety of the other, to 
the doctrine of Scripture, and conclude that the doc- 
trine of the reformed church is the old and true, but 
the doctrine of the church of Rome, is both new 
and false doctrine; and that what the Rhemists on 
Gal. i. 8, say, " It is great pity and shame that so 
many follow Luther and Calvin, and such other 
lewd fellows into a new gospel;'^ is more true of, 
and better applied to the followers of the popish 
doctors, or of the Rhemists themselves; who on 2 
Tim. iii. 16, say, "The heretics upon this com- 
mendation of Holy Scriptures, pretend (very sim- 
ply in good sooth) that therefore nothing is neces- 
sary to justice and salvation but the Scriptures.'^ 
And on John xxi. 25. " Few things are written of 
Christ's acts and doctrine in comparison of that 
which he did and spake, and yet the heretics will 
needs have all in Scripture." Whereas the evan- 
gelist does not say that any thing is omitted of his 
doctrine, but of his acts. For though he spoke 
more words than are expressed, yet all the doctrines 
that he uttered in those words, are contained in the 
Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. The 
apostles preached nothing but that which was con- 
tained in the Scriptures, Acts xvii. 11. and xxvi. 
22. Rom. i. 2. Fulke in Loc. 


II. Of Reading the Scripture. 

1. The doctrine of the prophets, Christ, and his 
apostles concerning the common people's reading 
and knowing the Scripture. 

Deut. xxxi. 12. " Gather the people together, 
men, and women, and children, and thy stranger 
that is within th)'' gates, that they may hear, and 
that they may learn and fear the Lord your God, 
and observe to do all the words of this law. 13. 
And that their children which have not known any 
thing, may hear and learn to fear the Lord your 
God, as long as ye live in the land.'' Josh. viii. 
35. " There was not a word of all that Moses com- 
manded, which Joshua read not before all the con- 
gregation of Israel, with the women and the little 
ones, and the strangers that were conversant among 
them.'' Psa. i. 2. " His delight is in the law of the 
Lord, and in his law doth he meditate day and 
night." Acts viii. 28. — " Was returning and sitting 
in his chariot, read Isaias the prophet." John v. 
39. " Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think 
ye have eternal life, and they are they which testify 
of me." Acts xvii. 11. "And these were more 
noble than those in Thessalonica, in that they re- 
ceived the word with all readiness of mind, and 
searched the Scriptures daily, whether those things 
were so." Ephes. iii. 4. " Whereby when ye read 
ye may understand my knowledge in the mystery 
of Christ." Col. iii. 16. "Let the word of God 


dwell in you richly in all wisdom/^ 1 Thes. v. 27. 
" I charge you by the Lord that this epistle be read 
unto all the holy brethren/' 2 Tim. iii. 15. "And 
that from a child thou hast known the Holy Scrip- 
tures.^' Rev. i. 3. " Blessed is he that readeth and 
they that hear the words of this prophecy, and keep 
those things that are written therein. '^ 

2. The doctrine of the protestants and reformed 
churches concerning the people's reading and know- 
ing the Scriptures. 

"Because the original tongues are not known to 
all the people of God, who have a right to, and in- 
terest in, the Scriptures, and are commanded in the 
fear of God to read and search them, therefore they 
are to be translated. All sorts of people are bound 
to read it [the word of God] apart by themselves, 
and with their families." " It is lawful for all men 
privately at home to read the Holy Scriptures, and 
by instructions to edify one another in the true re- 

3. The doctrine of the papists concerning the 
people's having, or reading the Scripture. 

" Whereas experience teaches, that if the Bible 
be everywhere without difference, permitted in the 
vulgar tongue, through men's unadvisedness, more 
hurt than good arises thereby, in this point let the 
judgment of the bishop, or inquisitor be followed; 

* Omnibus sacras literas privatim legere domi, ct instruendo 
aedificare mutuum in vera religione liceat. Confes. Helvet. 
cap. 22. 


that with the advice of the parish priest, or confes- 
sor, they may grant the reading of the Bible, trans- 
lated by catholic authors, in the vulgar language, to 
such as they shall understand, can take no hurt by 
such reading, but increase of faith and godliness. 
Which license let them have in writing. And if 
any presume without such license either to read or 
have it, unless they first deliver up their Bibles to 
the ordinary, they cannot have the pardon of their 
sins. And the booksellers, that without such license, 
shall sell, or any way afford Bibles in the vulgar 
language, shall forfeit the price of the books, to be 
converted by the bishop to pious uses, and be liable 
to such other penalties according to the quality of 
the offence, as the bishop shall think meet.^^* 

Though it is not agreeable to the doctrine of 

* Cum experiraento raanifestum sit, si sacra Biblia vulgari 
lingud passim sine discrimine permittantur, plus inde, ob homi- 
num temeritatem, detrimenti, quam utilitatis oriri, hac in parte 
judicio episcopi, aut inquisitoris stetur, ut cum consilio parochi, 
vel confessorii, Bibliorum, a catholicis auctoribus versorum, lec- 
tionem in vulgari lingua eis concedere possint, quos intellexe- 
rint, ex hujusmodi lectione non damnum, sed fidei atque pietatis 
augmentum capere posse, quam facultatem in Scriptis habeant. 
Qui autem absque tali facultate ea legere, aut habere, praesump- 
serint, nisi prius Bibliis ordinario redditis, peccatorum absolu- 
tionem percipere non possint. BibliopolaB vero, qui prsedictam 
facultatem non habenti, Biblia idiomate vulgari conscripta ven- 
diderint, vel alio quovis modo concesserint, librorum pretium, 
in usus pios ab episcopo convertendum, amittant, aliisque poenis 
pro delicti qualitate ejusdem episcopi arbitrio subjaceant. Index. 
Lib. prohib. Regul. 4. 


Christ and his apostles, that men must not read the 
Scripture without a license from men, for so what is 
strictly commanded by God, would be at the plea- 
sure of others, whether God be obeyed or no; and 
some liberty by pope Pius IV. seems to be granted 
for the reading of the Bible, to w^hom they please, 
yet it is taken away fully by pope Clement VIIL, 
in his observation on the before alleged rule, in these 

" It is to be observed concerning this rule of Pius 
IV.,* that by this impression and edition, no new 
power is granted to bishops, or inquisitors, or supe- 
riors, to license the buying, reading, or keeping the 
Bible in the vulgar tongue, seeing, hitherto, by the 
command and practice of the holy Roman and uni- 
versal inquisition, the power of granting such licen- 
ses, to read or keep Bibles in the vulgar language, 
or any parts of the Holy Scripture, as well of the 
New as of the Old Testament, or any sums or his- 

* Animadvertendum est circa supra scriptam quartam regu- 
1am indicis Pii papae IV. nullam per hanc impressionem et edi- 
tionem de novo tribui facultatem episcopis, vel inquisitoribus, 
aut regularium superioribus, concedendi licentiam emendi, le- 
gend!, aut retinendi Biblia vulgar! lingua edita, cum hactenus 
mandato et usu sanctaa Romanas et universalis inquisitionis sub- 
lata eis fuerit facultas concedendi liujusmodi liccntias Icgendi, 
vel retinendi Biblia vulgaria, aut alias Sacne Scriptura3 tani 
novi, quam vctcris Testamcnti partes quavis vulgari lingua edi- 
tas: ac insuper summaria et compendia etiam Iiistorica corun- 
dem Bibliorum, seu librorum Sacrno Scripturn^ (luocunquc vul- 
gari idiomato conscripta: quod quideni inviolate servandum est. 
Ind. Lib. Prohib. Observat. Circa Reg. 4. 


torical abridgments of the same, in any vulgar lan- 
guage, has been taken from them.; which inviolably 
is to be observed/^ 

Cardinal Bellarmln,* to the same purpose, teaches^ 
" That the people would get not only no good, but 
much hurt from the Scriptures; for they would 
easily take occasion of erring, both in doctrines of 
faith, and in precepts concerning life and manners.'^ 

Peresius (quoted by Dr. White,) saith, " Shall no 
bounds be set to popular, rude, and carnal men? 
Shall old men, before they have put off the filth of 
their mind, and young men that yet speak like chil- 
dren, be admitted to read the Scripture? I suppose 
verily, (and my opinion fails me not,) this ordi- 
nance under the pretence of piety, w^as invented by 
the devil.'' 

The Rhemist translators, in their preface, write 
in these words: " Which translation we do not pub- 
lish upon erroneous opinion of necessity, that the 
Holy Scriptures should always be in our mother 
tongue, or that they ought, or were ordained of God 
to be read indifferently of all; or that we generally 
and absolutely deemed it more convenient in itself, 
and more agreeable to God's word and honour, or 
edification of the faith, to have them turned into 
vulgar tongues, than to be kept and studied only in 

* Populus non solum non caperet fructum ex Scripturis, sed 
etiam caperet detrimentum : acciperet enim facillime occasionem 
errandi, turn in doctrinsl fidei, turn in prasceptis vitas et morum. 
Bellar. de Verb. Dei. lib. 2. cap. 15. 


the ecclesiastical learned languages. The wise will 
not regard what some wilful people do mutter, that 
the Scriptures are made for all men; and that it is 
of envy, that the priests do keep the holy book 
from them: which suggestion cometh of the same 
serpent that seduced our first parents, who persuaded 
them that God had forbidden them that tree of know- 
ledge, lest they should be as cunning as himself, and 
like unto the Highest. No, no, the church doth it 
to keep them from blind ignorant presumption, and 
from that which the Apostle calls ' knowledge, 
falsely so called,^ and not to bar them from the 
true knowledge of Christ. She knoweth how to 
do it without casting the holy to dogs, or pearls to 

Bravely said! O the excellent art of the mother 
church, that by keeping her sons and daughters 
ignorant of the word of God (the means of know- 
ledge), keeps them from blindness and ignorance! 
Who ever thought, that, to keep people in ignorance, 
was the way to keep them from it? What a pretty 
conceit is this, that they bar the people from know- 
ing the Scripture, and yet do not bar them from the 
knowledge of Christ? When Christ bids us search 
the Scriptures, for they are they that testify of him. 

III. Of Religious Worship in a known Tongue. 

1. The doctrine of the Scripture concerning this 

1 Corinthians xiv. 2. " He that speaketh in an 


unknown tongae, speaketh not to men, but to God. 
for no man understandeth him: howbeit, in the 
spirit, he speaketh mysteries/^ Read ver. 3 — 8. 
9. '"So likewise ye, except ye utter by the tongue 
Vv'ords easy to be understood, how shall it be known 
what is spoken? for ye shall speak unto the air.^' 
V. 11. '"If I know not the meaning of the voice, I 
shall be to him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that 
speaketh shall be a barbarian unto me.^^ 14. '* For 
if I pray in an unknown tongue, my spirit prayeth, 
but my understanding is unfruitful.'^ 16. ''Else 
when thou shalt bless with the spirit, how shall he 
that occupieth the room of the unlearned, say Amen, 
at thy giving of thanks, seeing he understandeth not 
what thou sayest.*' IS. '• I thank my God I speak 
with tongues more than you all.'' 19. ''Yet in the 
church, I had rather speak five words with my 
understanding, that by my voice I might teach 
others also, than ten thousand words in an unknown 
tongue." Read also ver. 22 — 28. 

2. The doctrine of the reformed churches, con- 
cerning religious worship in a known tongue. 

•• It is a thing plainly repugnant to the word of 
God, and the custom of the primitive church, to have 
public prayer in the church, or to minister sacra- 
ments, in a tongue not understood by the people."^ 

^•Because the orio-inal tono;ues are not known to 
all the people, who have right unto, and interest in 

^ Church of England, Artie. 24. 


the Scriptures, and are commanded in the fear of 
God to read and search them; therefore they are to 
be translated into the vulgar language of every na- 
tion unto which they come, that the word of God 
dwelling plentifully in all, they might worship him 
in an acceptable manner/^* 

" Let all things in the church be done decently 
and in order; finally let all things be done to edifi- 
cation; therefore let all strange tongues keep silence 
in the holy assemblies; let all things be uttered in 
the vulgar tongue, which is understood of all men 
in the company/^t 

" Contrary to the express command of the Holy 
Ghost, in it, (the catholic church) all things are said 
and sung in a language which the people do not un- 

" What hath been already said concerning the use 
of a language known to the common people, is to be 
understood not only in singing of psalms, but also 
of all the parts of the ecclesiastical ministry; for as 
sermons and prayers ought to be in a tongue known 
unto the church, so also should the sacraments be 
dispensed in a known language; for though it be 

* Assemb. Confes. 

t Omnia decenter et ordine fiant in ccclesia, omnia denique 
fiant ad aedificationem, taceant ergo omnes peregrine linguce in 
coetibus sacris : omnia proponantur linguA. vulgari, quoe eo in 
loco ab hominibus in coetu intelligatur. Confes. Ilelvet. cap. 22. 

X Contra expressum spiritus sancti prueccpium, in ea omnia di- 
cuntur ot canuntur linguii, quam populus non intclligit. Con- 
fes. Argentinens. cap. 21. 



lawful for the sake of the learned sometimes to use 
a strange tongue, yet the consent of the universal 
church requires [proves this] that the necessary ser- 
vices of the church should be done in the mother 

" Our [ministers] use all diligent endeavours that 
they may teach in the church and preach the word 
of the gospel, without mixture of human traditions; 
wherefore they read the very gospels and other 
Scriptures in the churches in the vulgar tongue, 
and afterwards interpret them to the people. ^^t 

3. The doctrine of the papists concerning public 
religious worship in a known tongue. 

'' Although the mass contains much instruction of 
the people, yet the fathers thought it not expedient 
that it should be every where celebrated in the vul- 
gar tongue.^^J 

* Quod jam dictum est de usu iingusB vulgo notae, intelli- 
gendum est non tantum de cantu psalmorum, sed etiam de om- 
nibus partibus ecclesiastici ministerii. Sicut enim conciones 
et precationes lingu^ ecclesise nota habendse sunt, ita et sacra- 
menta nolo sermone dispensanda sunt. Etsi enim licebit aliquo- 
ties peregrina lingua propter studiosos uti, tamen consensus 
catholicsB ecclesias hoc exigit, ut necessaria ministeria ec- 
clesiss fiant sermone vernaculo. Confes. Wittemb. de lioris 

t Nostri omnem operam navant, ut verbum evangelii, imper- 
mixtum humanis traditionibus in ecclesia doceant ac praedi- 
cent ; proinde ipsa evangelia, nee non alias Scripturas, lingud 
vulgari in templis legunt ; ac ita demum populo interpretantur. 
Confes. Bohemic. artic. 10. 

X Etsi missa magnajn contineat populi fidelis eruditionem: 
non tamen expedire visum est patribus, ut vulgari passim lin- 
gua celebraretur. Concil. Trident. Ses. 22. 


" Experience teaching us, we have learned, vs^hat 
has been the fruit of this, that divine service is per- 
formed in many places, translated into the mother 
tongue. So far from piety being increased, it is 
much diminished thereby/^* 

The Rhemist divines on 1 Cor. 14, say: "We 
do not doubt but it is acceptable to God, and avail- 
able in all necessities, and more agreeable to the use 
of all Christian people ever since their conversion, 
to pray in Latin, than in the vulgar, though every 
one in particular understands not what he saith: so 
it is plain that such pray with as great consolation 
of spirit, with as little tediousness, with as great 
devotion and affection, and sometimes more than 
the other, [such of their own church as learn their 
paternoster in their vulgar tongue,] and always 
more than any schismatic or heretic [protestant] 
in his own language. There is a reverence and 
majesty in the church's tongue dedicated in our 
Saviour's cross, which giveth more force and value 
to them [prayers] said in the church's obedience, 
than to others. The special use of them [prayers] 
is to offer our hearts' desires and wants to God, and 
to show that we hang on him in all things, and this 
every catholic doth for his condition, whether he 

* Experieritici magistrri didicimus quid fructus oa res attule- 
rit, quod in plerisque locis officia divina, in linguani vernacu- 
lam ad verburn translata dccantcntur. Tanturn abcst, ut ac- 
cesserit ad pietatem aliquid pins, ut ctiani diniinutuni esse 
vidoatur. Ilosius do Sacro vcrnaculo lo«>-cndo. 


understand the words of his prayer or not. It is 
enough that they can tell this holy orison to be ap- 
pointed to us, to call upon God in all our desires; 
more than this is not necessary; and the translation 
of such holy things often breedeth manifold danger 
and irreverence in the vulgar (as to think God is 
the author of sin, when they read, Lead us not into 
temptation) and seldom any edification at all. To 
conclude, for praying either publicly or privately 
in Latin, which is the common sacred tongue of the 
greatest part of the Christian world, this is thought 
by the wisest and godliest to be most expedient, 
and is certainly seen to be nothing repugnant to St. 

Reader, view over again 1 Cor. 14, and wonder 
at this popish insolence, to say, '• this is nothing re- 
pugnant to St. Paul.'^ 

IV. Of the Authority of the Scriptur^e. 

1. The doctrine of the apostles concerning the 
authority of the Scripture, that it does not depend 
upon the testimony of men. 

2 Pet. i. 19. ^" We have also a more sure word 
of prophecy, whereunto ye do well that ye take 
heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place. ^^ 
21. '^ Holy men of God spake as they were moved 
by the Holy Ghost.'' 2 Tim. iii. 16. " All Scrip- 
ture is given by inspiration of God.'' 1 John v. 
9. " If we receive the witness of men, the witness 
of God is greater/' 1 Thes. ii. 13. ^^Ye received 


the word of God which ye heard of us, — not as the 
word of men, but as it is in truth the word of God.'' 

2. The doctrine of the protestants, or reformed 
churches concerning the authority of the Scripture. 

" The authority of Holy Scripture, for which it 
ought to be believed and obeyed, dependeth not 
upon the testimony of any man or church, but whol- 
ly upon God (who is truth itself) the author there- 
of; and therefore it is to be received because it is 
the word of God/'* 

" We believe without wavering all things which 
are contained in the Scriptures, not so much because 
the church allows and receives them for canonical, 
as because the Holy Ghost bears witness to our con- 
sciences that they come from God, whereof they 
have proof in themselves/'t 

" We believe and confess that the canonical Scrip- 
tures of the prophets and apostles, of the Old and 
New Testament, are the true word of God, and have 
sufficient authority from themselves, and not from 
men; for God himself spake unto the fathers, pro- 
phets and apostles, and yet speaks unto us by the 
Holy Scriptures.'^J 

^ Assemb. Confess. 

t Omnia quae canonicis libris continentur, absque omni du- 
bitatione crediinus; idque non tarn, quod ccclesia eos pro hujus- 
modi recipiat et approbet, quam imprimis quod spiritus sanctus 
in cordibus nostris testetur ci Deo perfectos esse, comproba- 
tionemque ejus in seipsis habeant. Confess. Bclg. artic. 5. 

t Credimus et confitemur Scripturas canonicas sanctorum 
prophetarum ct apostolorum utriusquc tcstamenti ipsuiu verum 


'"' We acknowledge these books to be canonical, 
that is, we receive them as the rule of our faith, 
and that not only from the common consent of the 
church, but much rather from the testimony and in- 
ward persuasion of the Holy Spirit/^* 

"As we believe and confess that the word of God 
sufficiently instructs, and makes the man of God 
perfect; so we affirm and freely profess, that its au- 
thority is from God, and does not depend upon men 
or angels. We therefore assert, that they who say. 
the Scripture has no other authority but what it re- 
ceives from the church, are blasphemers against 
God, and wrong the true church, which always 
hears and obeys the voice of her bridegroom and 
pastor, but never challenges to herself a power to be 
the mistress over it.**t 

esse verbum Dei: et authoritatem sufficientem ex semetipsis. 
non ex hominibus habere. Xam deus ipse loquutus est patri- 
bus, prophetis et apostolis, et loquitur adhuc nobis per Scrip- 
turas sanctas. Confess. Helvet. cap. 1. 

^ Hos libros agnosciinus esse canonicos, id est. ut fidei nos- 
trae normam et regulam habemus ; idque non tantum ex com- 
muni ecclesiae consensu, sed etiam multo magis ex testimonio, 
et intrinseca spiritus sancti persuasione. Confess. Gallic, art. 4. 

t Sicut credimus et confitemur Scripturas Dei sufficienter in- 
struere, et hominem Dei perfectum reddere, ita ejus authorita- 
tem a Deo esse, et nee ab homine vel angelo pendere affirmamus 
et profitemur. Asserimus itaque quod qui dicunt Scripturam 
non aUam habere authoritatem, sed earn quam ab ecclesia ac- 
cepit, sunt in Deum blasphemi, et verae ecclesise injuriam faciant, 
quae semper audit, et voci sponsi et pastoris sui obsequitur, nun- 
quam autem magistram agere sibi arrogat. Confess. Scotican. 
art. 19. 


" Forasmuch as the Holy Scriptures were given 
and inspired by God himself, for this cause especi- 
ally, that they might be understood of all, they are 
read in our churches in the vulgar tongue.'^* 

3. The doctrine of the papists concerning the au- 
thority of the Scripture. 

Cardinal Hosius, president in the council of Trent, 
says, " To ask, whether more credit should be given 
to the Scripture or the church? is to ask, whether 
more credit should be given to the Holy Ghost, 
speaking by the mouth of the church, or to the 
Holy Ghost speaking in the Scripture by the writ- 
ings of the prophets and apostles. The church is 
to be believed without the authority of the Scrip- 
tures. If authority be not granted to the testimony 
of the church, the writings of the evangelists would 
be of no authority.'^t 

Hermanns speaks most contemptuously of the 
Holy Scriptures inspired by the glorious God, say- 
ing, " When the authority of the church leaves the 
Scriptures, they then are of no more account than 
iEsop's Fables." 

Pighius treads in the steps of the rest, concluding, 

* Quod a Deo ipso, sacrcc Scriptura? traditsG et inspirator, 
hancque ob causam potissimum, ut ab omnibus intelligantur,eas 
ccclesiis nostris, lingua vulgari, [nostri onines] Icgunt ot reci- 
iant. Confess. Bohemic. art. 1. 

t Creditum est ecclesiae sine omni Scrlpturarum pnvsidio. 
Testimonio ccclesioi si non sua tribuetur autoritas, nulla crit 
eorum, quae scripta sunt ab ovangelistis, autoritas. Ilosiua Con- 
fess. Fid. Cath. cap. 15. 


"That all the authority which the Scripture has 
with us, depends of necessity on the church/^^ 

And so does Canus, asserting, " That we are not 
bound to take the Scriptures for Scripture without 
the authority of the church. ''"!" And so do many 
more, whose sayings we have not room to insert. 

V. Of the Judge of Controversies and Expound- 
ing Scriptures. 

1. The doctrine of Christ and his apostles con- 
cerning the judge of controversies and expounding 

Mat. xxii. 29, 31, 32. "Jesus answered and said 
unto them (in the controversy about the resurrec- 
tion) ye do err, not knowing the Scriptures, nor the 
power of God. But as touching the resurrection 
of the dead, have ye not READ that whicli was 
spoken unto you by God, saying, I am the God of 
Abraham," &c. Acts xviii. 28. " For he mightily 
convinced the Jews, and that publicly, showing by 
the Scriptures that Jesus was the Christ." Acts 
xvii. 2, 3. " And Paul, as his manner w^as, went in 
unto them, and three sabbath days reasoned with 
them out of the Scriptures, opening and alleging that 
Christ must needs have suffered, and risen ao;ain 
from the dead, and that this Jesus whom I preach 

^ Pigh. de Hierar. Lib. 1. cap. 2. 

t Melch. Canus. Loc. Com. lib. 2. cap. S. 


unto you is the Christ.^' See Acts xxvi. 22, and 
xiii. 33. 

The apostle teaches that the Scripture must not 
be expounded according to any private interpreta- 
tion, 1 Pet. i. 20; and such is any exposition that is 
not according to the analogy of faith, which must 
be carefully heeded in Scripture interpretation, ac- 
cording to the apostle's doctrine, Rom. xii. 6. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants and reformed 
churches concerning the judge of controversies and 
expounding Scripture. 

" The Supreme Judge by which all controversies 
of religion are to be determined, and all decrees of 
councils, opinions of ancient w^riters, doctrines of 
men and private spirits are to be examined, and in 
whose sentence we are to rest, can be no other but 
the Holy Spirit speaking in the Scripture.''* 

"We hold no other judge in matters of faith than 
God himself, declaring by the Holy Scriptures what 
is true, and what is false; what ought to be em- 
braced, and what to be avoided."! 

"The infallible rule of interpretation of Scrip- 
ture is the Scripture itself, and therefore when there 
is a question about the true and full sense of any . 
Scripture, it must be searched and known by other 
places of Scripture that speak more clearly. "J 

" We acknowledge that interpretation of Scrip- 

* Asscmb. Confess. 

t Confess. Helvct. cap. 2. 

t Assemb. Confess. 



ture only to be orthodox and genuine, which is 
fetched from the Scriptures themselves/^* Soother 
churches in their confessions.! 

3. The doctrine of the papists concerning the 
judge of controversies and expounding Scripture. 

The council of Trent decreed, " That none should 
interpret the Holy Scripture contrary to the mean- 
ing which the holy mother-church (to whom it be- 
longs to judge of the true sense and interpretation 
of Scripture) has held and does hold.f 

" Forasmuch as the holy church of Rome is set 
up to the whole world for a glass or example, what- 
soever she determines or ordains, ought by all per- 
petually and invincibly to be observed.^'§ So their 
canon law. 

Others of them to the same purpose: " All power 
to interpret Scripture, and reveal the hidden myste- 
ries of our religion, is given from heaven to the 
popes and their councils. We are bound to stand to 
the judgment of the pope, rather than to the judg- 
ment of all the world besides.'^ 

" We do constantly avouch all the popes that are 
rightly elected to be Chi'ist's vicars; and to have 

* Confess. Scotican. art. 18. de notis Ecclesiae. 

t Confess. Helvet. cap. 2. Confess. Wittemberg. de Sacra 
Scriptura, et de Ecclesia. 

X Nemo Sacras Scriptui-as contra eum sensum, quern tenuit, 
et tenet sancta mater ecclesia, cujus est judicare de vero sensu 
et interpretatione Scripturarum sanctarum— interpretari audeat. 
Concil. Trid. Ses. 4. 

§ Corpus jur. Can. Dist. 19. c. enimvero. 


the highest power in the catholic church, and that 
we are bound to obey him in all things pertaining 
to faith and religion. All catholic men must neces- 
sarily submit their judgment and opinions, either in 
expounding the Scripture, or otherwise, to the cen- 
sure of the apostolic seat; and God has bound his 
church to hear the chief pastor in all points.'^ [Thus 
Andradius, Alvarus Pelagius, Simancha.] 

Bellarmin sticks so close to the judgment of the 
pope, that he might as well say. That if the pope 
say that black is white, or white black, that dark- 
ness is light, or that light is darkness, we must be- 
lieve it, because his infallible holiness says it, as say 
what he does in these words; '^ If the pope should 
err in commanding vices and forbidding virtues, the 
church would be bound to believe, that vices are 
good, and virtues evil, unless she would sin against 

Is not this a notable saying, spoken like a cardi- 

Stapleton, advancing the judgment of the church, 
speaks resolvedly; "I have said, and do say, that 
Scripture, in itself, is not so much the rule of faith, 
as the faith of the church is the rule of Scripture. ''t 

And Gregory of Valence puts in his saying for 

* To prove the pope cannot err, he uses this argument. Si 
autem papa erraret praecipiendo vitia, prohibendo virtutes, td- 
neretur ecclesia credere vitia esse bona, et virtutes nialas, nisi 
vellet contra conscientiam pcccare. — Boll, de Pont. lib. 4. cap. 5. 

t Staplet. do Autorit. Scrip, lib. 2. cap. 11. 


the pope^s judgment. " In the Roman bishop resides 
that full authority of the church, when he pleases to 
determine matters of faith, whether he does it with 
a council, or without.^^* 

Yea, the canon law sets him up for such an un- 
controllable judge, "that if the pope, by his negli- 
gence or remissness in his work, be found unpro- 
fitable to himself or others; or if he should draw 
with him innumerable souls by heaps or troops to 
hell, yet might no mortal man be so bold or pre- 
sumptuous as to reprove him, because he is the 
judge of all, to be judged by none/'t 

VI. Of the Head of the Universal Church. 

1. The doctrine of Christ and his apostles, con- 
cerning the head of the universal church. 

Matt, xxiii. 8. " But be not ye called rabbi, for 
one is your master, even Christ, and all ye are 
brethren.^' Ephesians i. 22, 23. "And hath put all 
things under his feet, and gave him to be the head 
over all things to the church, which is his body, the 
fulness of him that filleth all in all.'' Ephes. v. 23. 
" Christ is the head of the church, and he is the 
saviour of the body.'' Col. i. 18. " And he (Christ) 
is the head of the body, the church." 1 Cor. xii. 2^, 
" And God hath set some in the church, first apos- 
tles, secondarily prophets, thirdly teachers," &c. 

* Gregor. de Valent Analys. fidei, lib. 8. c. 1. 
t Corpus Juris Can. Distinct. 40. Si Papa, &c. 


Ephes. iv. 11. "And he gave some apostles, and 
some pastors and teachers.'^ 

Reader, observe, in these places where the apostle 
gives an enumeration of church officers, there is no 
mention of a vicar of Christ, or of any mortal man 
being the head under Christ, of all the churches of 
Christ in the world; and is it likely that he would 
have omitted the ehiefest and most principal officer, 
that is essential to the church, if there had been any 
such? I can find several officers mentioned, but no 
universal (though secondary) head. I do not find 
a pope mentioned in the apostle's catalogue, either 
expressly or reductively ; not expressly, that is plain; 
not reductively, for to which of these should he be 
reduced ? To the prophets ? let me hear his prophe- 
cies, and when any of them have been fulfilled. 
Besides, I know not that he pretends to it. To be an 
apostle ? Apostles went up and down to preach the 
gospel, and were not fixed to any particular state, 
which is not the case of the bishop of Rome. To 
the number of teachers, and pastors? This is below 
the pope to be ranked amongst such, for he is the 
pastor of pastors. Besides, in the catalogue, there 
are many pastors, but I see not one to be the chief 
and head of all the rest, and of the whole universal 

2. The doctrine of the protestants, or reformed 
churches, concerning the head of the universal 

" There is no other head of the church, but the 
D 2 


Lord Jesus Christ, nor can the pope of Rome, in any 
sense, be head thereof. All true pastors, in what 
place soever they are placed, have the same and equal 
authority among themselves, given to them under 
Jesus Christ, the only head, and the chief, and alone 
universal bishop. And therefore, it is not lawful 
for any church to challenge to itself, dominion or 
sovereignty over any other church. The bishop of 
Rome has no more jurisdiction over the church of 
God, than the rest of the patriarchs, either of Alex- 
andria or Antioch have.^^ 

To this doctrine,* subscribe the churches of Hel- 
vetia, Scotland, Belgia, Wittemberg, Bohemia, &c. 

3. The doctrine of the papists, concerning the 
head of the church. 

"The canon law makes the church of Rome 
higher than all others by the head, affirming the 
church of Rome to be the head and prince of all 
nations; the mother of faith; that it had this head- 
ship not from the apostles, but from the Lord him- 
self, and has the eminency of power over the uni- 
versal church, and the whole flock of Christian 
people; the hinge and head of all churches; as the 
door turns upon the hinges, so all churches by God's 
appointment, are governed by the authority of this 
holy seat; the first of all other seats, without spot 
or blemish, or any such thing. The mistress of all 

^ Confess. Helvet. cap. 17. Confess. Scoticana art. 16. de Ec- 
clesia. Confessio Belgic. art. 29. Confess. Wittemb. de summo 
Pontifice. Confess. Bohemic. art. 8. 


other churches, a glass and spectacle to all men, 
to be followed in all things which she appoints; 
against which church of Rome, whosoever speaks 
any evil, or endeavours to take away her privilege, 
is forthwith a heretic; and whoso shall refuse obe- 
dience to the apostolic seat, is an idolater, a witch, 
and pagan/'* 

Reader, these are high and swelling words. 

The Roman Catechismt propounds the question, 
"What are we to think of the bishop of Rome?'' 
and answers, "the account and unanimous opinion of 
all the fathers, concerning him was, that this visible 
head was necessary to the constituting and preserv- 
ing of the unity of the church." 

Bellarmin lays down this assertion: "The pope 
is immediately appointed by Christ, the pastor and 
head, not only of all particular churches, but also of 
the whole universal church taken together.''^ 

VII. OflnfalliUlity, 

1. The doctrine of the apostles, concerning the 
fallibility of churches and pastors. 

1 Cor. xiii. 12. " For now we see through a glass 
darkly. Now I know but in part." Gal ii. 11. 

* Corpus Juris Can. Decret. part. 2. q. 7. cap. Beati. distinct. 
22. c. Romana ecclesia caeterarum primatum Iiabet. et glos. dis- 
tinct. 22. c. Non. et glos. Sacrosancta. distin. 21. c. quamvis. 
ibid. c. denique; distinct. 19. c. enimvero. distin. 22. c. onines. 
distin. 81. P. Greg. 7. c. si qui. 

t Catechis. Trident in Expos. Syrnb. Apost. 

t Bellarm. de Concil. Autorit. lib. 2. cap. 15. 


"But when I came to Antioch I withstood him 
(Peter, the pope's pretended predecessor) because 
he was to be blamed/' (and yet his successor must 
not be blamed, though through his negligence he 
should draw many to hell, as before is shown.) 
Ver. 12. " For before that certain came from James, 
he (Peter) did eat with the Gentiles; but when they 
were come, he withdrew, and separated himself, fear- 
ing them which were of the circumcision." V. 14. 
" But when I saw that they walked not uprightly 
according to the truth of the gospel, 1 said unto 
Peter before them all," &c. Let the reader ob- 
serve that the successor so called, claims a greater 
privilege than his supposed predecessor had, for 
Peter erred, but the pope (forsooth) cannot. Rom. 
xi. 18 — 21, turn to it. Ver. 22. "Behold there- 
for the goodness and severity of God ; on them (the 
church of the Jews) which fell severity; but to- 
wards thee (the gentile and church of Rome amongst 
them) goodness, if thou continue in his goodness; 
(as she hath not) otherwise thou shalt be cut off." 
(Where then is her infallibility?) Revel, xviii. 2. 
" Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become 
the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul 
spirit, (and yet boasts she is without spot) and a 
cage of every unclean and hurtful bird;" (and yet 
is the holy mother church.) Read also in the second 
and third chapters of the Revelation, what is said of 
the seven churches; and then look for good proof 
that infallibility is settled by Christ upon the church 


of Rome, above all other churches, before you be- 
lieve any such privilege to be granted to it. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants and reformed 
churches concerning the fallibility of churches. 

" As the churches of Jerusalem, Alexandria, and 
Antioch have erred; so also the church of Rome 
hath erred; not only in their living and manner of 
ceremonies, but also in matters of faith.* When 
general councils are gathered together (forasmuch 
as they are an assembly of men, whereof all are not 
governed with the Spirit and word of God) they 
may err, and sometime have erred, even in things 
pertaining unto God.'^t Hereunto agree many other 
churches in their confessions.^ 

3. The doctrine of the papists concerning infalli- 
bility of the church. 

They teach that " the visible church whose rec- 
tor is the pope of Rome, never has erred, never can 

Bellarmin affirms,|| "1. That the pope, when he 
teaches the whole church, can in no case err in 
things appertaining to faith. ^' "2. Not only the 
pope of Rome, but the particular church of Rome 

* Church of Engl. art. 19. 

t Art. 21. 

t Confes. Helvet. de Ecclcsia. Confes. Saxon, de Eccles. 
Confes. Wittemberg de Conciliis. 

§ Catechis. Trident, in Expos. Symb. Apost. de Eccles. q. 
15. Test. Rhemist. Annot. on 1 Tim. i. 15, ct Ephes. v. 24. 

II Bell, de Rom. Pontif. lib. 4. cap. 3. 


cannot err in faith.'^* " 3. The pope of Rome 
cannot err, not only in decrees of faith, but also not 
in precepts of manners, which are prescribed to the 
whole church, and are necessary to salvation, or in 
those things which in themselves are good or evil/^t 
" 4. It is probably and piously to be believed, that 
the pope not only as pope, cannot err, but as a par- 
ticular person cannot be a heretic, by pertinacious- 
ly believing any thing that is false, contrary to the 
faith/^J (This is a foul mistake, for several popes 
have been heretics in the judgments of some of 
their popes, so that some of them must needs err; 
either some of them in being heretics, or others of 
them in saying they were, if they were not.) " 5. 
Our opinion is, that the church cannot absolutely 
err, either in things absolutely necessary, or in 
other things, which she propounds to be believed 
or done by us, whether they be expressly contained 
in the Scriptures, or not.'^§ " 6. In these two 
things, all catholics agree; 1. That the pope, with 
his general council, cannot err in making decrees of 
faith, or general precepts of manners. 2. That the 
pope alone, or with his particular council determin- 
ing any thing in a doubtful matter, whether he may 
err or not, ought to be obeyed by all the faithful.^'|| 
[A goodly agreement!] 

* Bell, de Rom. Pontif. lib. 4 cap. 4. 

t Ibid. lib. 4. cap. 5. 

X Ibid. lib. 4. cap. 6. ' 

§ Idem, de Eccles. Milit. lib. 3. cap. 14. 

II Idem, de Rom. Pont. lib. 4. cap. 2. 


Becanus gives the opinion of the papists, saying, 

1. "That the church is the judge of controversies, 

2. That the rule by which the church determines 
controversies, or gives its definitive sentences, is 
not the Scripture only, but the Scripture and tradi- 
tion together. 3. That the church according to the 
rule (of Scripture and tradition) pronounces sen- 
tence either by the pope, the pastor of the church, 
or by a council approved by the pope, and both 
ways infallibly/'* 

Pighius also puts in his judgment, " That the 
pope cannot any way be a heretic, nor publicly 
teach heresy, though he alone determine any mat- 

But reader, notwithstanding all this confidence of 
infallibility whether of pope, or councils, or both, 
they are proved to have erred, from the historical 
narratives of their own writers. Baronius acknow- 
ledges that pope HonoriusJ was counted a heretic, 
joining with the Monothelites, or those that denied 
two wills in Christ; and so do their own Genebrard,§ 
and the Rhemists, though some of them go one 
way, and some another to save the infallibility, yet 
in vain; for he was condemned by|| a general 

* Catholici tria docent, &c. Becan. Manual, lib. Leap. 5. 
t Pigh. lib. 4. Hier. Eccl. cap. 8. 
\ Spondan. Epitom. Baro. par. 2. p. 96. 
§ Genebr. Chron. lib. 3. pajr. 484. 

II Concil. Constantinople, G Act. 13. Sur. Tom. 2. p. 092. 
Caranz. Sum. Concil. p. 591, GIO, 012. 


council, and anathematized, with six more holding 
the same heresy, and this when the legates of pope 
Agatho were present; whose epistles to Sergius, 
&c. were produced and read in the council, and 
judged heretical, destructive to men's souls and con- 
demned to be presently burnt, and so they were. 

Their own Baronius also gives an account of the 
barbarous actings of pope Stephen* the Seventh, 
(called the Sixth) towards the dead body of Formosus, 
his predecessor; for taking it out of the sepulchre, 
he set it clothed in its pontificals in the pontifical seat, 
and after he had derided it, took off its vestments, 
and cut off three fingers, and cast it into the river 
Tiber; and all whom Formosus had ordained, he de- 
graded and ordained them again. "This pope (says 
the author), gathering a synod, approved his inhu- 
man act, which was condemned again by pope John 
IX., as he had made void the decrees of Formosus.'' 
And thus they can decree, and others rescind and 
decree the contrary, and act worse than heathens, 
and yet not err any of them, in faith or manners, 
which to any man's reason seems very strange. 

Besides, Marcellinust was an idolater; LiberiusJ 

"* Ita furore percitus homo non quod jure liceret, sed quod 
exaestuans rabies suaderet, implens. Spondan. Epitom. Baron, 
par. 2. p. 247. 

t Ipse Marcellinus ad sacrificium ductus est, ut sacrificaret, 
quod et fecit. Caranz. Concil. p. 72. 

t Liberium tsedio victum exilii, in haereticam pravitatem sub- 
scripsisse, asseril Hieronimus : testantur id ipsum alii quoque 
antiqui Scriptores ; ac denique ipse Liberius scriptis Uteris ad, 
&c. Spondan. Epitom. Baron, in Ann. 357. 


an Arian; Siricius, Calixtus, Leo IX. and Paseha- 
lis condemned ministers^ marriage. John XXII. 
held, that the souls of the wicked should not be 
punished till the day of judgment. John XXIII. 
denied the souPs immortality. John XI. kept for 
his paramour a famous strumpet called Marozia. 
John XIII. at dice called to the devil for help, and 
drank a health to him; lay with his own mother, 
and his father's concubine; ordained deacons in a 
stable; for money made boys bishops; committed 
incest with two of his sisters; and at last being 
found in the act of adultery, was slain by the wo- 
man's husband. 

Pope Sylvester IL* was a conjuror. Enquiring 
of the devil how long he should live, he was an- 
swered, till he should say mass in Jerusalem; in 
the lent after, as he was saying mass in the chapel 
of Saint Cross, he suddenly fell sick, and remember- 
ing that that chapel was called Jerusalem, he per- 
ceived how he was cozened by the devil. Before 
he died, he bequeathed his soul to the devil, and 
commanded his cardinals, that after his death they 
should cut his body in pieces and so bury him. 
Pope Hildebrandt was a conjuror, and enquiring of 

* Sylvestrum secundum, Benedictum 9. Gregorium G. Gre- 
gorium 7. fuisse magos, narrat Beno cardinalis. Sylvester 2. 
inter ipsas mortis angustias supplicat, manus et linguam sibi 
abscindi, per quas sacrificando demonibus, deum iiilionoravit. 

t Hildebrandus, (qui Gregorius 7.) consecratam cucharis- 
tiam in ignem projecit, consulens dajmones contra Henricum 4. 


the host (which they say is the body of Christ,) for 
an answer against the emperor, because it would 
not speak, he threw it into the fire and burnt it. 
For many wickednesses he was deposed and ban- 
ished. Pope Leo X. pleased with the great sums 
of money which he had got by indulgences, said to 
cardinal Bembas, " see what abundance of wealth we 
have gotten by this fable of Christianity.^^ And 
when he lay upon his death-bed, the same cardi- 
nal rehearsing a text of Scripture to him, he re- 
plied, "away with these fables concerning Christ.^' 
Pope Nicolas I. forbade marriage to the clergy; 
saying, it was more honest to have to do with 
many women privately, than openly to take one 
wife. John XXIV. was accused before the coun- 
cil of Constance for heresy, simony, murder, 
poisonings, adulteries, and sodomy; which being 
made good against him, he was deposed and im- 
prisoned. Pope Eugenius IV.* was deposed by 
the general council at Basil, for being a simonist, 
and guilty of perjury, being a schismatic, and an ob- 
stinate heretic. It would make a large book to 
give an account of the failings of popes in matters 
both of life and faith; but I have but little room al- 
lowed. Take two general expressions of their own 

imp. Beno cardinalis, qui et plura de hoc et aliis Romanis pon- 
tif. miranda narrat, quoB nullus historicorum neque Platina, nee 
quisquam alius prodidit. Vide Illyric. Catal. pag. 219, 220, 221, 
223, &c. 

* Laurent. Suri. Concil. torn. 4. pag. 104. 


authors and then judge. "What then was the face 
of the holy Roman church ? How exceeding filthy, 
when the most potent, and yet the most sordid 
strumpets ruled at Rome? and their lovers thrust 
in Peter^s chair ?^'^ Another fixed enough to the 
popish religion, acknowledged that in this one thing 
that age was unhappy, that for near one hundred 
and fifty years about fifty popes wholly fell away 
from the virtue of their ancestors, being rather 
apotactical [irregular] and apostatical than apos- 
tolical. t 

And as the church (if thereby understood the 
pope) has failed, so also if taken for general coun- 
cils has also failed, as is plain by this infallible ar- 
gument, in that several general councils ratified by 
popes have decreed things contradictory, and that 
in matters of faith; and some of them must neces- 
sarily err, except contradictions can be reconciled, 

* Vide. Luitprand. lib. 2. c. 13. et Baron. Annal. ad an. 912. 
vel Spondan. Ex quibus videas foedissimam hujus teinporis 
ecclesia? Romanae faciem, ad an. 912. 

t Genebrar. in seculiim decimum. Infelix dicitur hoc secu- 
lum. exhaustum hominibus ingenio et doctrina Claris, sive etiam 
Claris principibus et pontificibus, in quo niliil fere dignum memo- 
ria posteritatis gestum sit. Hoc ipso infclicissirnum, quod eccle- 
sia esset, sine ullo bono fere pontifice. Hoc vero uno infelix, 
quod per annos fere 150, pontifices circiter 50, ci Johannc scili- 
cet 8, qui Nicolao, et Adriano 2, Sanctis successit, ad Leonem 9, 
usque a virtute majoruni prorsus defccerint, apotactici, apostati- 
civc potius quam apostolici,e tanto pontificurn nunioro, quinque 
modo, et satis tenuiter, laudantur, ^fec. Gonebrard. Chronol. 
lib. 4. pag. 5.52, 553. 


and both parts be true, which is impossible. For 
example^ the general councils of Constance and of 
Basil have fully asserted that a general council is 
above the pope, who is to be judged by them, and 
by them may be deposed; in these words, " Not one 
of the skilful ever doubted but that the pope was 
subject to the judgment of a general council, in 
things that concern faith; and that he cannot with- 
out their consent dissolve or remove a general coun- 
cil; yea and that this is an article of faith, which 
without destruction of salvation cannot be denied, 
and that the council is above the pope, de fide, and 
that it cannot be removed without their own con- 
sent, and that he is a heretic that is against these 
things/' Thus the council of Basil owned by pope 
Eugenius, and the council of Constance* confirmed 

* Primo definitur quod generalis synodus in Spiritu Sancto 
legitime congregata, generale concilium faciens, ecclesiam mili- 
tantem reprffisentansj potestatem a Christo immediate habet, cui 
quilibet cujuscunque status, etiam si papalis existat, obedire te- 
netur in his quae pertinent ad fidem et ad extirpationem schis- 
matum, et ad generalem reformationem ecclesiee in capite et in 
membris. Secundo. declarat quod, quicunque cujuscunque dig- 
nitatis, et etiam si papalis existat, qui mandatis aut prseceptis 
hujus sanctae sjnodi, et cusjuscunque alterius concilii ofeneralis- 
obedire contumaciter contempserit, nisi resipuerit, condignae 
poenitentiae subjiciatur et debite puniatur. Tertio, declarat quod 
ipsum generale concilium pro praemissis, eaque concernentibus 
congregatum sine ipsius consensu, per nullum, quavis autoritate, 
etiam si papali dignitate praefulgeat, dissolvi, transferri, aut ad 
aliud tempus prorogari potest Haec tria sunt veritates fidei 
catholicae, quibus pertinaciter repugnans est censendus hsBreti- 


by pope Martin V. being personally present in it. 
And yet another general council* at the Lateran 
under Julius II. and Leo X., expressly decree on the 
contrary, that the pope is above a general council; 
till these two can both be true, the pope is above a 
general council, and the pope is not above a general 
council, the infallibility of their church (and that 
even in a fundamental point thereof) is laid in the 

VIII. Of the Catholic Church, 
I. The doctrine of the apostles concerning the 
catholic or universal church. 

1 Cor. i. 2. ^' Unto the church of God which is 
at Corinth, with all that in every place call upon the 
name of Jesus Christ our Lord, both theirs and 
ours." 1 Cor. xii. 13. "For by one spirit, we are 
all baptized into one body, whether we be Jews or 
gentiles, whether we be bond or free, and have been 
all made to drink into one spirit.'^ Rev. vii. 9. " Af- 
ter this I beheld, and lo, a great multitude, which no 
man could number, of all nations and kindreds, and 
people, and tongues, stood before the throne, and 

* Cum etiam solum Romanum pontificem, pro tempore exisl- 
entem, tanquam authoritatem super omnia concilia habentem, 
conciliorum indicendorum, transferendorum ac dissolvcndorum 
plenum jus et potestatcm habere, ex conciliorum confessione 
manifeste constet. Laurent. Surius, Concil. tom. 4. pag. G83. 
There was but one in all the council, but gave his placet liere- 
unto, that would not recede from the determination of the 
council of Basil Ibid. pag. C84. 

E 2 


before the Lamb/^ See also Ephes. i. 10, 22. Acts 
ii. 39. Ephes. ii. 19. and iii. 15. Acts ii, 47. Matt, 
xxviii. 19. Mark xvi. 15. Acts ii. 21. Rom. i. 16. 
Gal. iii. 28. Acts xiii. 39. Rom. x. 4. Luke xiii. 28. 
Acts X. 35. 

Reader, observe that these Scriptures speak of 
the church, under Christ her head, making no men- 
tion of acknowledging, or being joined to, any mor- 
tal man, as her visible head; in which church, not 
limited or confined to the church of Rome, there is 

2. The doctrine of the protestants concerning the 
catholic or universal church. 

" The catholic or universal church, which is invi- 
sible, consists of the whole number of the elect that 
have been, are, or shall be gathered into one, under 
Christ the head thereof, and is the spouse, the body, 
the fulness of him that filleth all in all." 

" The visible church, which is also catholic or 
universal, under the gospel, (not confined to one 
nation, as before under the law) consists of all those 
throughout the world, that profess the true religion, 
together with their children, and is the kingdom of 
the Lord Jesus, the house and family of God, out 
of which there is no ordinary possibility of sal- 

This is the confession also of the churches of Hel- 
vetia, Bohemia, Belgia, Wittemberg, &c.* 

^ Conf. Gall. art. 27, 28 : Conf. Helvet. 2. cap. 17 : Bohem. 
c. 8 : Belg. art, 27 : Wittemb. art. 32. 


3. The doctrine of the papists concerning the 
catholic or universal church. 

The Trent catechism* makes that to be the only- 
church, which is under the pope, excluding all 
others that submit not to him as the vicar of Christ; 
the Lateran council made it necessary to salvation, 
to be subject to the pope of Rome: Pope Pius II. 
approved this doctrine: "I came to the fountain of 
truth, w^hich the holy doctors, with one voice, say, 
that he cannot be saved that holds not the unity of 
the holy church of Rome; and that all those virtues 
are maimed to him that refuses to obey the pope of 
Rome, though he lie in sackcloth and ashes, and fast 
and pray both day and night, and seem in other 
things to fulfil the law of God. We learned that 
the one catholic and apostolical church (of Rome) 
is the mother of all the faithful, out of which there 
is no salvation. ^'t 

But reader, do you think that God will damn any 
holy, humble and believing persons, because they 
are not subject to the pope? Has God any where 

* Catechis. Rom. in Symb. page 139, 141. 

t Ad fontem veri perveni. — Quem sancti doctores, quorum una 
vox est, salvari non posse, qui sanctae RomanoB ecclesiae non 
tenet unitatem; omnesque illas virtutes mancas esse ei, qui 
summo pontifici obedire recusat ; quamvis in sacco et cinere 
jacens, dies et noctes jejunet, et oret, et in coeteris videatur le- 
gem implere, — didicimus unam ecclesiam catholicam et aposto- 
licam esse matrem omnium fidelium, extra quam non invenitur 
sal us. — Pius II. Bui. Retractation um apud Laurent. Surium. 
Concil. tom. 4, pag. 50G. 


made such subjection to him a condition of salva- 
tion? Let them show it if they can. Or are there 
no such persons in the world that are holy and be- 
lieving, and yet do not submit to the pope? There 
are many thousands that know themselves better 
than his infallible holiness can know them, who 
know that to be a falsehood. 

Nor does Bellarmin vary from them in his defi- 
nition of the church: " That it is a company of men 
knit together in the profession of the same Christian 
faith, and communion of the same sacraments, un- 
der the government of lawful pastors, especially of 
the bishop of Rome, Christ's vicar upon earth. 
From whence it might be. easily gathered, who be- 
long to the church, and who do not. There are 
three parts of this definition of the church. 1. Pro- 
fession of the true faith. 2. Communion of the 
sacraments. 3. Subjection to the pope of Rome, 
the lawful pastor. By the first, all infidels, Turks, 
pagans, heretics and apostates are excluded from the 
church. By the second, catechumens and excom- 
municated persons are excluded. By the third, all 
schismatics that have the word and sacraments, but 
do not submit to the lawful pastor (the pope); but 
all others though they be reprobates, wicked and 
ungodly, are included in the church.'^* 

Mark this, good reader, whether this sounds like 
the apostle's doctrine before laid down. If men be 

* Bellar. de Eccles. Milit. lib. 3. cap. 2. 


never so good, and holy, though converted, and be- 
lieving, if they do not submit to the pope as the 
universal head, they are no members of Christ's 
church, nor can be saved; and if they be vs^icked 
and ungodly, if they own the pope they are in- 
cluded in the church. Oh what an odious religion 
is that, which damns all the Christians in the world 
besides themselves! what wretched dissembling 
is this, to call their church the most holy church, 
without spot or wrinkle or any such thing; when 
the worst might be and are owned as members 
thereof, if they profess subjection to the pope! 

IX. Of Justification. 

1. The doctrine of the apostles concerning justi- 

Rom. iv. 5 — 8. " Now to him that worketh not, 
but believeth on him that justifieth the ungodly, his 
faith is counted for righteousness. Even as David 
describeth the blessedness of the man unto w^hom 
God imputeth righteousness without works, saying, 
blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, 
and whose sins are covered; blessed is the man 
to whom the Lord will not impute sin.'' 2 Cor. 
V. 19, 21. "Not imputing their trespasses unto 
them. For he hath made him to be sin for us, who 
knew no sin, that we might be made the righteous- 
ness of God in him." Rom. iii. 22, 24. " Even the 
righteousness of God, which is by faith of Jesus 
Christ, unto all, and upon all thcna that believe. 


Being justified freely by his grace, through the re- 
demption that is in Christ Jesus/^ See ver. 25, 28; 
and Tit. iii. 5, 7; Rom. v. 17, 18, 19; Gal. ii. 16; 
Phil. iii. 9; Acts xiii. 38, 39; Ephes. ii. 8, 9. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants concerning jus- 

"We are accounted righteous before God, only for 
the merit of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, by 
faith, and not for our own works and deservings. 

" Those whom God eflfectually calleth, he also 
freely justifieth; not by infusing righteousness into 
them, but by pardoning their sins, and by account- 
ing and accepting their persons as righteous; not 
for any thing wrought in them, or done by them, 
but for Christ^s sake alone. Imputing the obe- 
dience and satisfaction of Christ unto them, they 
receiving and resting on him, and his righteousness 
by faith, which faith they have, not of themselves, 
it is the gift of God.'' 

To this doctrine consent the reformed churches 
in Helvetia, Bohemia, France, Belgia, &c.* 

3. The doctrine of the papists concerning justi- 

" Justification is not only the forgiveness of sin, 
but also the sanctification and renovation of the in- 
ward man by a voluntary susception of grace and 

* Confes. Helvet. 1. 4. 16. et 2. cap. 15. Bohemic. cap. 6. 7. 
Gal. art. 12. 22. August, art. 4. 6. 26. Belg. art. 22. 24. Wittem- 
berg: art. 5. Basil art. 8. 


gifts, whereby a man of unjust is made just, and of 
an enemy is made a friend, that he might be an heir 
according to the hope of eternal life. The only for- 
mal cause of justification is the righteousness of God, 
not wherewith he himself is righteous, but whereby 
he makes us righteous; namely, by which, being 
given to us by him, we are renewed in the spirit of 
our mind, and not only reputed, but are, and are 
truly called righteous, receiving righteousness in 
ourselves, every one according to his measure, which 
the Holy Spirit imparteth to each, as he will, ac- 
cording to every one's own disposition, and co- 
working. If any one shall say that a man is justi- 
fied by the sole imputation of the righteousness of 
Christ, or in the sole remission of sin, excluding 
grace and charity, which is shed abroad in their 
hearts by the Holy Spirit, and is inherent in him, 
or that the grace whereby we are justified is only 
the favour of God, let him be accursed.'^* 

Reader, by this council you may see, how the 
papists confound justification and sanctification, and 

* Justificatio non est sola peccatorum remissio, sed et sancti- 
ficatio et renovatio interioris hominis per voluntariam suscep- 
tionem gratiae et donorum, &c. unica formalis causa ejus est 
justitia Dei, &c. qua videlicet, ab eo donati, renovamur spiritu 
mentis nostrae, &c. Si quis dixerit homines justificari vel sok\ 
imputatione justitisB Christi, vel sola peccatorum remissione, 
exclusci gratifi, et charitate, quae in cordibus eorum per Spiritum 
Sanctum difFundatur. atquo illis inhrnreat, aut ctiani gratiam qua 
justificamur, esse tantum favorem Dei, anathema sit. Concil. 
Trident. Scss. G. 


place it in our inherent righteousness. Though 
these are not separated, that any should be justified 
who is not sanctified, penitent, and believing, yet 
they are carefully to be distinguished. 

X. Of the Merit of Good Works. 

1. The doctrine of prophets, Christ, and his 

Isaiah Ixiv. 6. '' All our righteousnesses are as 
filthy rags.^^ Job xxii. 2, 3. " Can a man be profit- 
able unto God? Is it any gain to him that thou 
makest thy way perfect?'^ Job xxxv. 7. " If thou 
be righteous, what givest thou unto him, or what 
receiveth he of thy hand?'^ Luke xvii. 10. ^^ We 
are unprofitable servants, we have done that which 
was our duty to do.^^ Romans viii. 18. " For I 
reckon that the sufferings of this present time are 
not worthy to be compared with the glory that 
shall be revealed in us.'^ Also Psalm cxxx. 3, and 
cxliii. 2; Romans iv. 2, 4, 5, 6; 1 Corinthians iv. 7; 
Ephesians ii. 9. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" We cannot, by our best works, merit pardon of 
sin, or eternal life at the hand of God, by reason of 
the great disproportion that is between them and 
the glory to come, and the infinite distance that 
there is between us and God, whom, by them, we 
can neither profit nor satisfy for the debt of our for- 
mer sins; but, when we have done all we can, we 
have done but our duty, and are unprofitable ser- 


vants; and because, as good, they proceed from his 
Spirit, yet as they are wrought by us, they are de- 
filed and mixed with so much weakness and imper- 
fection, that they cannot endure the severity of 
God's judgment.'^ To this doctrine, the reformed 
churches subscribe.* 

3. The doctrine of the papists. 

" If any one shall say, that the good works of a 
justified person are so the gifts of God, that they 
may not also be the good merits of him that is jus- 
tified; or that he that is justified, does not, by the 
good works which he does, by the grace of God and 
merit of Christ (of whom he is a living member), 
truly merit increase of grace, eternal life, and (if he 
depart in a state of grace), the enjoyment thereof, 
and moreover also increase of glory, let him be ac- 

" Men's works, proceeding from grace, deserve 
or merit heaven. — If the joy of heaven be retribu- 
tion, repayment, hire-wages for works, then works 
can be no other but the value, desert, price, worth 
and merit of the same. — The word reward in Latin 

* Confess. Wittemb. de bonis operibus. Bohem. art. 7. Sax- 
on. art. 3. et 8. August, art. 4. et 20. Helvet. 2. c. 16. Belg. 
art. 24. Argentinens. cap. 10. 

t Si quis dixerit hominis justificati bona opera ita esse dona 
Dei, ut non sint etiarn bona ipsius justificati merita, aut ipsum 
justificatum bonis operibus, &c. non vere mereri augmentura 
gratiae vitam a3ternam et ipsius vita? ceterna?, &c. consecutionem, 
atque etiam glorioe augmentum, anathema sit. Concil. Trid. 
Sess. 6. 



or Greek is the very stipend that the hired work- 
man or journeyman covenants to have of him whose 
work he does, and js a thing equally and justly an- 
swering to the time and weight of his travails and 
works, rather than a free gift,* &c. It is most clear 
to all not blinded in pride and contention, that good 
works are meritorious, and the very cause of Sal- 

" The heavenly blessedness which the Scripture 
calls the reward of the just, is not given of God 
gratis and freely, but is due to their works. Yea, 
God has set forth heaven to sale for our works.J Far 
be it from us that the righteous should look for eter- 
nal life, as a poor man does for his alms, for it is 
much more honour for them as victors and triumph- 
ers to possess it, as the garland which by their la- 
bour they have deserved. § Although the restoration 
of mankind be ascribed to the merits of Christ, yet 
it is not for Christ's merits that our works are re- 
warded with eternal life; neither does God, when 
he gives the reward, look towards Christ's death, 
but only to the first institution of mankind, wherein 
by the law of nature it was appointed that in the 
just judgment of God, obedience should be re- 
warded with life, as disobedience is with death. "|| 

* Rhemists on 1 Gor. iii. 8. 

t Rhem. on Heb. vi. 10. 

X Andrad. Orth. Expl. 16. 

§ Dean of Lovan Expli. art. Lovan. Tom 2. art. 9. 

11 Bayus de Merit. Operum, lib. 1. c. 9. 


" A supernatural work, proceeding from grace, 
within itself, and of its own nature, has a proportion 
and eondignity with the reward, and a sufficient 
value to be worth the same. The reward therefore 
is not given for Christ^s merit. It must not be de- 
nied but our merits are true merits, so that the 
works of the godly, proceeding from grace, have of 
themselves an inward worthiness, and are propor- 
tionable to the reward,'^* &c. 

The papists in this point are not all of a mind, 
but many of them swell with horrible pride, and 
think they deserve heaven as well as a journeyman 
does his wages, and cannot be brought to stoop so 
low as to receive the highest happiness as the free 
gift of God. 

XI. Of Works of Supererogation. 

1. The doctrine of the Scripture. 

Nehem. xiii. 22. " And I commanded the Le- 
vites that they should cleanse themselves. — Remem- 
ber me, my God, concerning this also, and spare 
me according to the greatness of thy mercies.'^ Luke 
xvii. 10. Gal. v. 17. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" Voluntary works, besides, over and above God's 
commandments, which they call works of superero- 
gation, cannot be taught without arrogance and im- 

^ Suarez. Tom. 1. in TIio. 3. d. 41. sect. 3. 5. ss. secundo, et 
oportct : 


piety; for by them men declare that they not only 
render unto God as much as they are bound to do, 
but that they do more for his sake, than of bounden 
duty is required: whereas Christ says plainly. 
When ye have done all things that are commanded 
you, say. We are unprofitable servants.'^ 

Against such works are the reformed churches 
also in Helvetia, France, Saxony,* &c. 

3. The doctrine of the papists. 

" The fastings and satisfactory deeds of one man, 
are available to others; yea, and holy saints, and 
other virtuous persons may in measure and propor- 
tion of other men's necessities and deservings, allot 
to them, as well the supererogation of their spiritual 
works, as those that abound in worldly goods may 
give alms of their superfluities, to them which are 
in necessity/'t Again, they expound 1 Cor. ix. 16. 
" But now preaching not only as enjoined me, but 
also as of love and charity, and freely without put- 
ting any man to cost, and that voluntarily and of 
very desire to save my hearers, I shall have my re- 
ward of God, yea, and a reward of supererogation, 
which is given to them who of abundant charity do 
more in the service of God than they are com- 

But, reader, though a man might have more mo- 
ney than he needs, yet you will not find a man that 
has more grace than he needs; and he that cannot 

* Confess. Helvet. 2. c. 16. August, art. 20. Gal. art. 24. 
Sax. art. 3. 17. Basil, art. 10. Belg. art. 12. 
t Rhemists on 2 Cor. 8. 14. 


satisfy for himself cannot impart satisfaction to an- 
other; for none can give what they have not; and 
if we do what is no way commanded, we might 
hear, Who hath required this at your hands? And 
though Paul was not burdensome to the Corinthi- 
ans, yet he received from other churches to do them 
service. So that all that is said falls short to prove 
works of supererogation. Let proud papists boast 
of doing more, but let us go to our knees to lament, 
that when we have done our best, we have done 
less than is commanded. 

XII. Of Religious Worship. 

1. The doctrine of Christ and his apostles, is that 
religious worship is due only to God. 

Mat. iv. 10. "Thou shalt worship the Lord thy 
God, and him only shalt thou serve.'^ Col. ii. 18. 
" Let no man beguile you of your reward in a 
voluntary humility and worshipping of angels." 
Rev. xix. 10. " And I fell at his feet to worship him, 
and he said unto me, See thou do it not; I am thy 
fellow-servant, w^orship God." See also Rev. xxii. 
8,9. Acts X. 25, 26. "As Peter was coming in, 
Cornelius met him and fell down at his feet and 
worshipped him. But Peter took him up, saying, 
Stand up, I myself also am a man." Read also 
Acts xiv. 13—15, 18. Rom. x. 14. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" Religious worship is to be given to God, the 
Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, and to him alone, and 

F 2 


not to angels, saints, or any other creature. The 
acceptable way of worshipping the true God, is in- 
stituted by himself, and so limited to his own re- 
vealed will, that he may not be worshipped accord- 
ing to the imaginations and devices of men, or the 
suggestions of Satan, under any visible representa- 
tions, or any other way not prescribed in the Holy 
Scripture/^^ In this, the reformed churches agree 
in their public confessions. 

3. The doctrine of the papists concerning reli- 
gious worship given to saints, and their relics, and 
to images. 

"The holy synod of Trent commands all bishops 
and others, that have the office and care of teaching, 
that according to the use of the catholic and apos- 
tolical church, received from the primitive times of 
the Christian religion, according to the consent of 
the holy fathers, and decrees of sacred councils, 
[which yet have decreed against it], they first of all 
diligently instruct the faithful concerning the inter- 
cession and invocation of saints, the honour of relics, 
and the lawful use of images; teaching them that 
the saints reigning together with Christ, offer their 
prayers to God for men, and that it is good and pro- 
fitable, humbly kneeling, to call upon them; and to 
run to their prayers, help, and aid, for the benefits 
to be obtained from God, through his son Jesus 
Christ our Lord, who is our only Redeemer and 

* Confess. Helvetc. 4,5. Gall. art. 24. Belgic. art. 26. Ar- 
gent c. 11. August, art. 21. Saxon, de Invocatione, &c. 


Saviour; and that they are of a wicked opinion that 
say, that the saints, enjoying eternal happiness in 
heaven, are not to be called upon; or who affirm/ 
either that they do not pray for men, or that to 
pray to them, that they would pray for us, yea, each 
one particularly, is idolatry, or contrary to the word 
of God, or against the honour of Jesus, the one Me- 
' diator of God and men; or that it is a foolish thing 
to make humble request in words, or in our own 
minds, to those that are reigning in heaven. More- 
over, that the sacred bodies of the holy martyrs and 
others living with Christ, which were living mem- 
bers of Christ, and the temple of the Holy Ghost, 
which shall be raised by him to eternal life and be 
glorified, are to be worshipped by believers, by 
which God bestows many benefits on men. So that 
whosoever shall say, that veneration and honour is 
not due to the relics of the saints, or that these and 
other sacred monuments are without profit honour- 
ed [worshipped] by the faithful; and that for the 
gaining of their help, the memory of saints in vain 
is solemnized, are utterly to be condemned, even as 
the church has long condemned them, and does now 
condemn them. Moreover, the images of Christ, 
the Virgin Mary, and of other saints, are especially 
to be had and kept in churches, and due honour and 
veneration to be given to them."* 

* Mandat sancta synodus omnibus episcopis, et cteieris do- 
cendi munus curamque siistinentibiis, lit juxta catholics? ct 
apostolicae ccclesia? usum, ^ primaevis Christianaj religionis tern- 


Again: "It is beyond all doubt, that believers, 
according to the custom always received in the 
catholic church, should give to the holy Sacrament, 
the worship of Latria (highest worship), ^vhich is 
due to the true God.'^ Concil. Trident. Sess. 13. 
cap. 5. 

The popish doctors maintain of images in gene- 
ral, that they ought to be worshipped with the same 

poribus receptum, sanctorumque patrum consensionem et sa- 

crorum conciliorum decreta. imprimis de sanctorum interces- 

sione, invocatione, reliquiarum honore et legitime imaginum 

usu, fideles diligenter instruant, docentes eos, sanctos una cum 

Christo regnantes, orationes suas pro hominibus Deo offerre, 

bonura atque utile esse simpliciter eos invocare et ob beneficia 

impetranda a Deo per filiura ejus, &c. ad eorum orationes, opem, 

auxiliumque confugere; illos vero qui negant sanctos aeterna 

felicitate in coelo fruentes, invocandos esse, aut qui asserunt, 

vel illos pro hominibus non orare, vel eorum, ut pro nobis etiam 

singulis orent.invocationem esse idololatriam, vel pugnare cum 

verbo Dei, adversarique honori unius Mediatoris Dei, et homi- 

num Jesu Christi, vel stultum esse, in coelo reo^nantibus voce 

.... ' 

vel mente supplicare, impie sentire: sanctorum quoque mar- 

tyrum. et aliorum cum Christo viventium sancta corpora quae 

viva membra Christi fuerint, et templum spiritus sancti, ab ipso 

ad SBternam vitam suscitanda, et glorificanda, a fidelibus vene- 
randa esse, per quae malta beneficia a Deo hominibus praestan- 
tur ; ita ut affirmantes sanctorum reliquiis venerationem atque 
honorem non deberi, vel eas, aliaque sacra monumenta a fide- 
libus inutiliter honorari, atque eorum opis impetrandae causa 
sanctorum memorias frustra frequentari, damnandos esse, prout 
jampridem eos damnavit, et nunc etiam damnat ecclesia. Ima- 
gines porro Christi, deiparae virginis et aliorum sanctorum, in 
templis praesertim habendas et retinendas, eisque debitum hono- 
rem et venerationem impertiendam. Concil. Trident. Sess. 25. 


adoration as the thing represented by the image. 
So Aquinas. The same reverence is given to the 
image of Christ, as to Christ himself. Since there- 
fore Christ is worshipped with the adoration of 
Latria (highest worship due to God), it follows 
that his image ought to be worshipped with adora- 
tion of Latria (or highest worship due to God). 

XIII. Of Transubstantiation. 

1. The doctrine of Christ and his apostles is, that 
after consecration in the Lord's Supper, there is real 
bread and wine. 

Matthew xxvi. 26,27; Luke xxii. 19, 20; 1 Cor. 
xi. 23 — 28. "The Lord Jesus, the same night in 
which he was betrayed, took bread; and when he 
had given thanks — he took the cup, saying, This cup 
is the New Testament in my blood. ^^ Mark, reader, 
after the blessing it is called bread. "As often as ye 
eat this bread, and drink this cup. Whosoever shall 
eat this bread. Examine — and eat of that bread." 
I Cor. X. 16. "The bread which we break, is it not 
the communion of the body of Christ.^' Acts xx. 
7 — 11. " They came together to break bread. And 
had broken bread. '^ 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" Transubstantiation (or the change of the sub- 
stance of bread and wine), in the Supper of the 
Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ; but is re- 
pugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overtlirows 
the nature of a Sacrament, and has given occasions 


to many superstitions and idolatries, and is repug- 
nant to sense and reason:'' Which reasons have 
moved all the reformed churches against the doc- 
trine of transubstantiation.* 

3. The doctrine of the papists. 

" If any shall deny the body and blood, together 
with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and so whole Christ to be truly, really and substan- 
tially contained in the most holy sacrament of the 
eucharist, (Lord's supper) but shall say, it is there 
only as in a sign, either figuratively or virtually, let 
him be accursed. If any shall say, that the sub- 
stance of bread and wine, together with the body 
and blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, remains in the 
sacrament of the holy eucharist, and shall deny that 
wonderful and singular conversion of the whole 
substance of the bread into his body, and of the 
whole substance of the wine into his blood (the 
figures of bread and wine only remaining) which 
conversion [change] the catholic church most fitly 
calls transubstantiation, let him be accursed.'^t 

* Conf. Helv. 1. art. 22. et 2. c. 21. Wittem. c. 19. de Euchar. 
Basil, art. 6. Scotican. art. 21. 

t Si quis negaverit, in sanctissimse eucharistisB sacramento 
contineri, vere, realiter, et substantialiter corpus et sanguinem, 
unk cum anim^ et divinitate Christi, &c. Si quis dixerit in 
sacrosancto eucharistiae sacramento remanere substantiam panis 
et vini, &c. negaveritque mirabilem illam et singularem con- 
versionem totius substantise panis in corpus, ettotius substantise 
vini in sanguinem, (fee. — Concil. Trident. Sess. 13. Can. 1, 2. 


XIV. Of receiving both Kinds. 

1. The doctrine of Christ and his apostles, is 
that those that have the bread should also have the 

Mark xiv. 22 — 24. Luke xxii. 19,20. 1 Cor. 
X. 16, and xi. 24 — 27, 29. " Take, eat — as oft as ye 
drink it — eat this bread, and drink this cup — shall 
eat this bread and drink this cup — so let him eat — 
and drink of this cup — for he that eateth and 
drinketh — '^ 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" The cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the 
laity, for both the parts of the Lord^s sacrament, by 
Christ's ordinance and commandment, ought to be 
ministered to all Christian men alike.'' That the 
people are to receive the wine also, is the confession 
of the reformed churches in Helvetia, Bohemia, 
France, &c.* 

3. The doctrine of the papists. 

The council of Constance decreed, " That though 
Christ administered this sacrament, in both kinds, 
to his disciples, and, in the primitive church, it 
was also accordingly received by believers under 
both kinds [bread and wine,] hoc tamen non ob- 
stante, notwithstanding [Christ's institution, and the 

* Confes. Helv. 1. art 22, et 2. c. 21. Bohem. c. 13. Gall. 30, 
38. Wittemb. cap. 19. Belg. art. 35. Saxon, de ccrna Doniiii. 
August, de missa, art. 1, 2. 


example of the primitive church] the laity shall 
have the bread only. Others that pertinaciously 
affirm otherwise are to be expelled as heretics. Also 
we command, upon pain of excommunication^ that 
no presbyter administer it to the people under both 
kinds of bread and w^ine/^* The council of Trent 
to the same purpose decreed the taking away the 
cup from the people, notwithstanding Christ's insti- 
tution, and administration of it in both kinds, 
"having a power to alter and change, so that they 
keep the substance of the sacrament, as they judge 
most profitable for the receivers ;''t and though 
they confess the primitive church received both, yet 
the church of Rome, "for grand and just reasons 
has approved and decreed the people's taking of it 
in one kind only/' 

XV. Of the, Sacrifice of the Mass, 

1. The doctrine of the apostle Paul. 

Heb. ix. 22, 25, 26, 28. " And almost all things 
are by the law purged with blood, and without shed- 
ding of blood there is no remission. Nor yet that 
he should offer him.self often, as the high priest en- 
tereth into the holy place every year with the blood 
of others; (for then must he have often suffered since 
the foundation of the world,) but now once in the 
end of the world hath he appeared to put away sins 

* Concil. Constant. Sess. 13. 

\ Concil. Trident. Sess. 21. cap. 1, 2, 3. 


by the sacrifice of himself. So Christ was once 
offered to bear the sins of many. Heb. x. 11^ 12^ 
14, 18. "And every priest standeth daily minis- 
tering and offering oftentimes the same sacrifices^ 
which can never take away sins. But this man 
after he had offered one sacrifice for sins, for ever 
sat down on the right hand of God. For by one 
offering he hath perfected for ever them that are 
sanctified. Now where remission of these is, there 
is no more offering for sin. Read also Heb. vii. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" The offering of Christ once made, is, that per- 
fect redemption, propitiation, and satisfaction for all 
the sins of the whole world, both original and ac- 
tual, and there is no other satisfaction for sin, but 
that alone. Wherefore the sacrifices of masses, in 
the which it was commonly said that the priest of- 
fered Christ for the quick and dead, to have remis- 
sion of pain or guilt, were blasphemous fables, and 
dangerous deceits.'^ This is the doctrine of all re- 
formed churches against the sacrifice of the mass.^ 

3. The doctrine of the papists. 

" If any shall say that in the mass a true and pro- 
per sacrifice is not offered to God, let him be ac- 
cursed. If any shall say in those words, ' Do this 

* Confes. Helvet. 1. art. 22. et 2. cap. 30, 21. Basil, art. 0. 
Saxon, art. 14. Belg. art. 35. Wittenib. c. 19. Boliom. c. 13- 
Augustan, de Misaa, art. 13. 



in remembrance of me/ Christ did not institute his 
apostles to be priests, or that he did not ordain, that 
they and other priests should offer his body and 
blood, let him be accursed. ^^* 

" If any shall say the sacrifice of mass is only of 
praise and thanksgiving, or a bare commemoration 
of the sacrifice of Christ upon the cross, and not a 
propitiatory sacrifice, or that it profits him alone that 
takes it, and ought not to be offered for quick and 
dead, for sins, punishments and satisfactions, and 
other necessities, let him be accursed." 

So in that part of the mass called the offertory, 
the priest says, " Holy Father, eternal and almighty 
God) receive this immaculate host, which I, thine 
unworthy servant, offer unto thee my true and liv- 
ing God, for my innumerable sins, and offences and 
neglects, and for all them that stand here about, and 
also for all faithful Christians, both living and dead, 
that it may profit me and them unto salvation, unto 
eternal life. Amen." 

Again, in the mass-book the priest prays: "We 

* Si quis dixerit, in missa non ofFerri Deo verum et proprium 
sacrificiunij anathema sit. Si quis dixerit, illis verbis, hoc facite 
in meam commemorationem, Christum non instituisse apostolos 
sacerdotes; aut non ordinasse, ut, ipsi aliique sacerdotes oiFer- 
rent corpus et sanguinem suum, anathema sit. Si quis dixerit, 
missee sacrificium tantum esse laudis et gratiarum actionis, &c. 
non autem propitiatorium ; vel soli prodesse sumenti, neque 
pro vivis et defunctis, pro peccatis, pcenis, satisfactionibus, et 
aliis necessitatibus ofFerri debere, anathema sit. — Concil. Tri- 
dent. Sess. 22. de Sacrific. Missse, Can. 1, 2, 3. 


beseech thee^ therefore most merciful Father, through 
Jesus Christ thy Son our Lord, and do ask of thee 
that thou wilt accept, and bless these t gifts, these t 
presents, these hotly sacrifices immaculate, espe- 
cially those which we ofl'er unto thee for thy holy 
catholic church, and all them that assist here, for 
themselves and for all theirs, for the redemption of 
their souls, and for the hope of their salvation. 
Which oblation, thou, God, vouchsafe in all 
things to make blessed, t ascript, t reasonable t and 
acceptable; t that it may be made unto us the botdy 
and bloodt of thy most beloved Son. We present 
to thy excellent Majesty of thy gifts and things 
given, a pure t host, a holy t host, an immaculate t 
host, the holy bread t of eternal life, and the cup t 
of eternal salvation. We humbly pray thee, al- 
mighty God, command that these things be carried 
by the hands of thy holy angels to thy altar on 
high, into the presence of thy divine Majesty, that 
we all who, by the particitpation of thine altar [kisses 
here the altar,] have taken the holy botdy and blood 
t of thy Son, may be filled with all heavenly blests- 
ings and grace.'^ And then the priest prays for the 
dead, " be mindful also, Lord, of thy men ser- 
vants, and women servants, [naming their names 
that are deceased, for whom friends or kindred 
would have mass,] who have preceded us with 
the sign of the faith, and who sleep in a sleep of 

View and consider this little piece, which I have 


transcribed, reader^ out of the mass-book, and then 
judge whether there is any such thing concerning 
the Lord's supper in the Scripture; and whether 
these are not new doctrines and devices. 

XVI. Of Worshipping the Host. 

1. The doctrine of the Scripture concerning the 
Lord's supper, where it is treated of, contains no- 
thing for the worshipping of it; as Matt. xxvi. 2Q^ 
21. Mark xiv. 22—24. 1 Cor. xi. 24 — 29. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" The worshipping the elements, the lifting them 
up, or carrying them about for adoration, and the 
reserving of them for any pretended religious use, 
are all contrary to the nature of this sacrament, and 
to the institution of Christ." So say other reformed 
churches in their public confessions of faith.* 

3. The doctrine of the papists. 

"It is beyond all doubt that the faithful, ac- 
cording to the custom always received in the catho- 
lic church, may give in veneration the worship of 
Latria, which is due to the true God, to this holy 
sacrament; for it is not the less to be adored, be- 
cause it was appointed by the Lord to be received; 
for we believe that the same God is present in it, 
whom the eternal father, bringing into the world, 
saith. And let all the angels of God worship him."t 

" Confess. Helvet. 2. c. 21. Saxo. de coena dom. Wittemb. 
de Eucharist. JBasil. art. 6. 

t Nullus itaque dubitandi locus relinquitur, quin omnes Christi 


Moreover the holy synod declares* " That with 
very great religion and piety of the church was this 
custom brought in, that every year upon some pe- 
culiar holy-day, this high and venerable sacrament 
with singular veneration and solemnity should be 
celebrated, and that it should in processions, reve- 
rently with honour and worship be carried about 
through the ways and public places/^ 

XVII. Of Jiuricular Confession, 

1. The doctrine of Christ and his apostles con- 
cerning confession of sin. 

Luke xvii. 3, 4. — James v. 16. — 1 John i. 9. See 
also Proverbs xxviii. 13. Psalms xxxii. 5, 6, and 
li. 4, 5, 7, 9, 14. In all which places there is con- 
fession of sin to God, to the party wronged by us, 
and to one another; but not a word of secret confes- 
sion of all our sins in the ears of the priest. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" As every man is bound to make private con- 
fession of his sins to God, praying for the pardon 
thereof, upon which and the forsaking of them he 
shall find mercy; so he that offends his brother, or 
the church of God, ought to be willing by a private 
or public confession and sorrow for his sin, to de- 
clare his repentance to those that are offended, who 

fideles pro more in catholicA. ecclcsi.^ semper reccpto,latria? ciil- 
tum, qui vero Deo dcbetur, huic sanctissimo sacraiiicnto in vene- 
ratione exhibeant, &c. 

^ Concil. Trident. Sess. 13. cap. 5. 
G 2 


arc therefore to be reconciled, and in love to receive 
him/^ So other reformed churches.^ 

3. The doctrine of the papists. 

" Let every one, both men and women, truly 
make confession of all their sins, at least once a 
year, to their own priest, or some other, having 
leave first from their own priest, else he can neither 
absolve nor bind him/^t 

" The universal church to the great profit of souls 
keeps the custom of confession in that holy and 
most acceptable time of lent, which also this holy 
synod most highly approves and receives, as pi- 
ously, and with good cause to be retained.^^f 

" If any shall deny sacramental confession, either 
to be instituted, or to be necessary to salvation by 
divine right; or shall say, the manner of making 
secret confession to the priest alone is not instituted 
and commanded by Christ, but is a human inven- 
tion, let him be accursed. ''§ 

" If any shall say that in the sacrament of pe- 
nance, it is not necessary to remission of sin, and 

^ Confess. Helvet. 2. c. 14. Argentinens. c. 20. August, de 
Confess. Saxon, de PcEnitentia. Wittemb. de Confessione. 

t Concil. Lateran. Can. 21. 

+ Unde jam in universa ecclesia, cum ingenti animarum fide- 
lium fructu, observalur mos ille salutaris, sacro illo et maxime 
acceptabili tempore quadragesimse, quem morum, &c. — Concil. 
Trident. Sess. 14. cap. 5. 

§ Si quis negaverit confessionem sacramentalem, vel institu- 
tam, vel ad salutem necessariam esse jure divino, &c. — Concil, 
Trident. Sess. 14. Can. 6. 


that by divine right, to confess all, and every mor- 
tal sin, that one can by all due diligent premedita- 
tion call to remembrance, even those that are secret 
sins, and against the last precept of the decalogue, 
and the very circumstances v^hich alter the kinds of 
sin, let him be accursed. ^^* 

XVIII. Of Penitential Satisfaction. 

1. The doctrine of the Scripture. 

Ezek. xvi. 61 — 63. "Then slialt thou remember 
thy w^ays and be ashamed. And I w^ill establish 
my covenant with thee, that thou mayest remember 
and be confounded, and never open thy mouth any 
more, because of thy shame, v\^hen I am pacified 
towards thee, for all that thou hast done, saith the 
Lord.'^ Andxxxvi. 31, 32. " Ye shall loathe your- 
selves in your own sight. Not for your sakes do I 
this. Be ashamed and confounded for your own 
ways.'^ See Hos. xiv. 2, 4. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" Although repentance is not to be rested in as 
any satisfaction for sin, or any cause of the pardon 
thereof, which is the act of God\s free grace in 
Christ; yet is it of such necessity to all sinners, that 
none might expect pardon without it.^' So other 

^ Si quis dixerit in sacramento pccnitentia) ad remissionem 
peccatorum neccssarium non esse jure divino confitcri, omnia et 
singula peccata mortalia, &c. — Concil.Trid. Scss. 14. Can. 7. 

t August, de Confessionc. Saxon, in Prn^fationc, ct artic. do 
Satisfactiono. Wittcnib. do Satisrifactionc. 


3. The doctrine of the papists. 

"If any shall say, that the whole punishment^ 
together with the guilt, is always remitted by God, 
and that the satisfaction of the penitent is no other 
than the faith whereby he apprehends Christ to 
have satisfied for him, let him be accursed/^* 

" If any shall say, that God is not satisfied for 
sins, as to temporal punishment, through the merits 
of Christ, by the punishments which he inflicts, and 
we patiently bear, or by such as are enjoined by the 
priest, nor by those that we voluntarily put our- 
selves unto, nor by fastings, prayers, alms deeds, 
and other works of piety, and that therefore the best 
repentance is only a new life, let him be accursed.'^! 

" If any shall say, that the satisfactions whereby 
penitents through Jesus Christ redeem sins, are not 
the worship of God, but the traditions of men, 
thwarting the doctrine of the grace and true worship 
of God, and the benefits of the death of Christ, let 
him be accursed. '^J 

XIX. Of Venial Sins. 

1. The doctrine of Christ and his apostles. 

Matt xii. 36. " I say unto you that every idle 
word that men shall speak, they shall give account 
thereof in the day of judgment.^' Rom. vi. 23. 

^ Concil. Trident. Sess. 14. Can. 12. 
t Concil. Trident. Sess. 14. Can. IS'. 
± Concil. Trident. Sess. 14. Can. 14. 


"For the wages of sin is death. ^^ See Rom. v. 12. 
and Isa. Iv. 7. 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

"As there is no sin so small but it deserves dam- 
nation^ so there is no sin so great, that it can bring 
damnation upon those that truly repent.^^ So other 
churches also.* 

3. The doctrine of the papists. 

"Some sins are venial, neither offering injury to 
God, nor deserving hell, nor binding us to be sorry 
for them, but may be forgiven by knocking of the 
breast, going into a church, receiving holy water, 
or the bishop's blessing, or crossing oneself, or by 
any work of charity, though we never think ac- 
tually of them.t Those sins which in their own 
nature are not contrary to the love of God and our 
neighbour as idle words, immoderate laughing, those 
sins that are not perfectly voluntary, as sudden mo- 
tions of anger, &c., and are in trivial things, as steal- 
ing of a halfpenny, &c., are venial sins; that is, do 
not turn us from God, and are easily expiated, like 
a slight hurt, which does not endanger life, and is 
easily cured. '^J 

XX. Of the State of Me7i after Death, 
1. The doctrine of the Scripture concerning the 
state of men after death. 

* Confes. Boliemic. art. 4. Saxon, do discriiniiic pcccatorum. 

t Aquin. par. 3. Quest. 87. art. 3. 

X Bellarm. torn. 3. de amissione frratio). lib. 1. c. 2. 3. 


Luke xxiii. 43. " Verily I say unto thee, this day 
shalt thou be with me in paradise/^ Heb. xii. 23. 
"And to the spirits of just men made perfect.'' 2 
Cor. V. I5 8. " For we know that if our earthly house 
of this tabernacle were dissolved, we have a build- 
ing of God. Willing rather to be absent from the 
body and to be present with the Lord." Phil. i. 23. 
" Having a desire to depart and to be with Christ." 
See also Matt. vii. 13, 14. John iii. 18. Luke xvi. 
23,24; w^here, and in other places, the Scriptures 
speak of two ways; one leading to destruction, the 
other to life; and two sorts of men; some that do 
not believe, and they are damned; some that do, and 
they are saved; but no third way, or third class is 

2. The doctrine of the protestants. 

" The bodies of men after death return to dust, 
and see corruption, but their souls (which neither 
die nor sleep), having an immortal subsistence, im- 
mediately return to God, who gave them. The 
souls of the righteous being then made perfect in 
holiness, are received into the highest heavens, 
where they behold the face of God in light and 
glory, w^aiting for the full redemption of their 
bodies; and the souls of the wicked are cast into 
hell, where they remain in torments and utter dark- 
ness, reserved to the judgment of the great day. 
Besides these two places for souls separated from 
their bodies, the Scripture acknowledges none.'^ 


So the reformed churches also in Helvetia, France, 
Saxony,* &c. 

3. The doctrine of the papists. 

" If any shall say that after the grace of justifica- 
tion received, the oflfence is so forgiven to every 
penitent sinner, and guilt of eternal punishment so 
removed, that there remains no guilt of temporal 
punishment to be suffered, either in this life, or the 
life to come in purgatory, let him be accursed/^t 

By this parallel of doctrines, you may easily 
judge that ours is the old religion; and the religion 
of the papists (wherein they differ from us), is a 
new religion. For they that own, profess and hold 
to the same doctrines and worship that were taught 
by Christ himself and his apostles, and no other (as 
to essentials at least), are of the old religion; and 
those that, forsaking and corrupting the doctrine and 
Avorship taught by Christ and his apostles, maintain 
and hold doctrines not contained in the Scripture, 
but risen up since and contrary to it, are of a new 
religion. But the protestants do the first, and the 
papists do the last, as appears by the parallel of doc- 
trines. Therefore the protestants are of the old 
religion, and the papists of a new one. For that 
religion which agrees with the oldest and the only 
rule, is the oldest and only religion; and if the 

* Confess. Helv. 2. cap. 2C. Gall. art. 24. Saxon, art. M. 
August. 11. Wiitcmbcrg. cap. 25. 

t Concil. Trident. Sess. G. Can. 30. ct Decret. dc Purgat. 
Sess. 25. 


papists will keep to the first and ancient rule, the 
word of God^ they must be of our religion; if they 
will not, but add or diminish, they will never 
answer to the charge of novelty laid upon them. 

So that their insulting and ridiculous question 
so often used, " Where w^as your religion before 
Luther?'^ is plainly and fully answered: "It was 
where the Romish religion never was, in the Scrip- 
tures, and in the primitive churches/^ And me- 
thinks, learned papists, who can read the writings 
of the fathers, and determinations of ancient coun- 
cils, should be ashamed to propound such a ques- 
tion; but they do it to amuse the common people 
that cannot read Greek and Latin authors, and are 
not acquainted with the history of the church; whilst 
I am persuaded they themselves know better, and 
could resolve this question themselves, if they would 
read and judge impartially. But the people that 
cannot read the fathers, councils, &c. might be abun- 
dantly satisfied, that our religion is the old religion, 
because found in, and founded upon the word of 
God; for all the books in the world must give place 
to the holy, sure, infallible word of the most true 
and faithful God. 




But though we show our doctrines to be found 
in the Scripture, our adversaries call for a catalogue 
of such as have taught them, from the apostles^ times 
successively to the time of Luther, as they pretend 
they can do for theirs; and would persuade the 
people, that the church as now reformed, and the 
doctrines now received by them, are new and upstart 
things, and have not been since the apostles' times, 
or before Luther. On the contrary, we assert that 
there have been such doctrines, and a church own- 
ing them in all ages, since they were preached by 
the apostles; which we will prove by two heads of 
arguments; the one taken a priori^ that such a 
church cannot, shall not cease, but always be in 
some part or other of the world; the other a poste- 
riorij that it has not ceased, but has always actually 
been, and therefore before Luther. 

The first, — that it cannot, shall not cease to be, 
taken « ^r^(9r^, stands firm upon these two grounds:* 
First, upon the promise of Christ, that is of infal- 
lible verity. Christ has promised that the true 
church, which is built upon the doctrine of the 
Scripture, and is conformed thereto, shall continue 



always, and not fail. That the reformed churches 
are built upon the doctrine of the Scriptures, and are 
conformed thereto, appears from the parallel of doc- 
trines before laid down. So that there is evidence 
from the promise of Christ, that the church holding 
such doctrines as the reformed churches do, did 
continue, and could not fail; and therefore our 
church and religion were before Luther. 

Secondly, upon the relation between Christ and 
his church. Christ is the only head of the church, 
and the church is the body of Christ. Christ is the 
king of his church, and the church subject to Christ. 
Christ is the husband and bridegroom of the church, 
and the church the wife and spouse of Christ. Such 
a church, then, could not cease to be, else there would 
have been some time in which Christ would have 
been a head without any body upon earth; a king 
without subjects, a husband and bridegroom, with- 
out a wife or spouse; all which are absurd. But the 
controversy does not lie between us on this point, 
but which church is this body, subjects, and spouse 
of Christ, which, by virtue of Christ's promise and 
its relation to him, could not fail or cease to be — 
theirs, or such as the reformed churches are. There 
is this ground (among others) on our side. That 
church which owns Christ to be her only head, 
husband, and king, and no other; which owns and 
professes subjection to the laws of Christ, and no 
other, as necessary to salvation; and worships the 
true God according to the Scripture, and no other, 


is the body, spouse, and subjects of Christ, that 
could not cease to be in any age. But such churches 
as the reformed are, own Christ to be their only 
head, husband, and king, and no other; and profess 
subjection to the laws of Christ, and no other, as 
necessary to salvation; and worship God according 
to the rules contained in the Scripture, and no other. 
All which the Roman church, as papal, does not 
do; for they own another head besides Christ, as 
necessary to salvation, and profess subjection to the 
laws of another, besides the laws of Christ, and that 
equally with them, yea, before them, though dis- 
tinct from, and contrary thereto, and give religious 
worship to others besides the true God, and so play 
the harlot. Hence, we conclude, that such churches 
as the reformed are, and not such as the papal, are 
the body, subjects, and spouse of Christ, which 
could not cease in any age to be, since the apos- 
tles' times; and therefore our religion was before 

The second evidence, that there have been the 
same doctrines, necessary to salvation, taught all 
along since the apostles successively, to Luther's 
times, is di posteriori^ from the writings of men, and 
histories of the church, abundantly satisfactory to 
us, and undeniable by our adversaries. It would be 
no real prejudice to the truth of our doctrines, if we 
could not give a catalogue of names that held and 
professed them in all ages, so long as we find them 
in the Scripture; nor could they for want thereof be 


justly charged, either with falsity or novelty; for 
what is in the word of God is true and old, and 
what is not contained therein and made necessary 
to salvation, is false and new, though of many hun- 
dred vears' standins;. That this is unreasonablv re- 
quired by the papists, and is no hurt to our religion, 
as to the truth and antiquity of it, and no cause of 
stumbling to any. will appear by these things fol- 

1. It is not necessary in order to prove ourselves 
men, to give the names of all the men that have 
lived before us, no, nor of any of them. It is suffi- 
cient that we can prove we have the same essential 
constituent parts of men as our predecessors had. 
That we have such bodies and such souls as they 
had, is a proof we are real men as they were, though 
we know not the names of all the intermediate per- 
sons successively by whom we have received our 
beings from them. So here: so long as we can tell 
and are sure we own and believe the same doctrines 
that the apostles did, we are sure we are of the same 
religion as they were, though we could not give the 
names of the persons that have from time to time 
professed the same. 

2. It is not necessary in order to know the false- 
ness of any doctrine that we should know the names 
of the heretics that have handed them down from 
one age to another: but we know them to be false, 
by their being contrary to the Scripture. 

3. We know that the dictates of the law oi na- 


ture are good and true, and that we have such a 
law, though we cannot give an account of the 
name of our ancestors from whom we have re- 
ceived them. 

4. A man might be an exact artificer, though he 
be not able to mentioii the names of those who in 
all ages have professed the same occupation, from 
the times of those that first invented them. So a 
man might be a good Christian, and of the true 
religion, and be ignorant of the many thousands 
of Christians that have been before him. 

5. Without this knowledge a man might love 
God, repent, believe and be saved; therefore it is 
not necessary to true doctrine, religion or salvation; 
else every unlearned believer must be acquainted 
with all the histories of the church, and fathers, and 
professors before him, which is impossible. 

6. If a man did know this, yet he might be 
damned. If a man could tell all the writers, preach- 
ers, doctors and councils that have lived since the 
apostles' days, he might go to hell at last. God will 
condemn men for being ignorant of the essential 
points of Christianity, contained in the Scripture, 
and for want of faith and repentance, but not for 
being unacquainted with the histories of the church, 
and names of those that professed the true religion 
in the ages before them. 

7. The Scripture never sends us to histories, 
councils and fathers as judges of true doctrine and 
religion, but to the word of God. Where in Scrip- 

H 2 


ture are professors or ministers commanded to 
study and be so conversant with all histories, coun- 
cils and antiquities as to be able to give a catalogue, 
who have taught or owned the true doctrine in ages 
before them? 

8. What deceitful dealing is this? to deny the 
people the reading of the Scriptures and acquaintance 
with them, and in such things commend ignorance 
as the mother of devotion, and yet call upon them^ 
to say, who taught their doctrines before Luther? 
As if it were more material to know who taught 
them, than to know them; or to be more skilled in 
the writings of men than in the word of God. 

9. They call for that from us which they cannot 
give for themselves. You ask, Who taught your 
doctrines from the apostles' times? and we retort 
your question. Who taught all your doctrines from 
the apostles' times? We know you can never show 
them. I know you pretend a large catalogue of 
popes; but yet you are greatly puzzled to give their 
succession, when there have been several popes to- 
gether, and they that then lived could not know 
which was the right. But if you could give a suc- 
cession of persons, it profits nothing without a suc- 
cession of true doctrine. If you could show a 
succession de facto^ you can show none de jure. 
That may be actual, that may not be lawful. A 
thief may actually succeed a true possessor, and a 
tyrant and usurper a lawful prince, but not lawfully. 
This is usurpation, not legitimate succession. We 


might say, therefore, to your people as you do to 
ours, Is it safe for you to continue in that religion, 
of which you can give no account who have taught 
your doctrines from the apostles^ times? For you 
cannot do it, nor your doctors either, though they 
call a council and search all records and writings of 
men, as shall be shown in the next chapter. 

Yet this is not said as if we doubted of our cause, 
if it were to be tried by the writings of the ancient 
fathers; or as if we could not mention multitudes 
before Luther that have taught and owned our doc- 
trines; for there are many great volumes in which 
our doctrines are to be found. To give a large re- 
hearsal of their words on our side would be an end- 
less work; yet a few shall be picked out of many, 
sufficient to show that our doctrines, in which we 
oppose the doctrines of the church of Rome, have 
been taught of old. 

What was the doctrine in the first hundred years 
from the birth of Christ is best understood from the 
Holy Scripture; and this is that age, and the wri- 
tings of the apostles are those writings, by which 
the writings of all other ages must be examined, as 
their surest rule. That our doctrines are there con- 
tained, and not the doctrines of the papists as such, 
we have proved in Chap. I. 

In the writings of the fathers that lived in the 
second century, we have many testimonies. 

In this age the bishops of Rome had not that 
power they now challenge, as appears from a letter 


of Eleutherius, bishop of Rome, to Lucius, king of 
England,^ who had sent to the bishop for the Ro- 
man laws, as they were founded on Christianity; to 
whom Eleutherius sent this answer: " You require 
of us the Roman laws, and the emperor^s, to be sent 
over to you. — The Roman laws, and the emperor^s 
we may ever reprove, but the law of God we may 
not You have received of late, through God's 
mercy, in the realm of Brittany, the law and faith 
of Christ. You have with you, within the realm, 
both the parts of the Scripture. Out of them, by 
God's grace, with the council of your realm, take 
a law, and by that law (through God's sufferance) 
rule your kingdom of Britain; for you are God's 
vicar in your kingdom." — From whence it is clear, 
that this bishop of Rome (1) challenged not the 
supremacy over England, but acknowledged the 
king to be supreme governor in his own kingdom. 

(2) That he acknowledged the perfection of Scrip- 
ture for life and manners, when laws should be taken 
from thence for the government of a kingdom. 

(3) That England received the gospel early, and not 
so late from the church of Rome as some of them 
boast, nor at all first from them, but from the Gre- 
cians of the eastern church,t as some think. 

After the apostles, many taught our doctrines 
long before Luther. For the sake of brevity, I 
must take up with fewer heads of doctrine, and 

* Fox. Acts and Mon. vol. 1. p. 139. 
t Id. ibid. p. 138. 


fewer testimonies under each doctrine. I had be- 
gun to give a catalogue in every century since 
Christ, but that being too large for this place, I laid 
it by, and give instances in these few following. 

I. The Ferfection and Sufficiency of the Scrip- 
tiire to Salvation taught long before Luther. 

Justin Martyr,* who lived in the second century 
after Christ, writes, " That the true religion is con- 
tained in the writings of the prophets and apostles, 
who have taught all things necessary for us to know. 
We are not commanded to give credit to the tradi- 
tions and doctrines of men, but those doctrines 
which were published by the prophets, and w^hich 
Christ himself delivered. All things are to be 
brought to the Scripture, and from thence are argu- 
ments and proofs to be fetched; for if a man be 
never so often asked, how many do twice two 
make? he will still say four; so a Christian dis- 
coursing with others will always allege the Scrip- 
ture.^^ And Irenaeus says, " The Scriptures are 
perfect as spoken and dictated from the word of 
God and his Spirit."! 

So Tertullian,t A. D. 200, &c., writes, '' I adore 

* Just. Mar. in Tryph. et Paren. 

t Scripturae perfecttB sunt, quippe k verbo Dei et Spiritu ejus 
dicta3, Iren. adver. hoer. lib. 2. cap. 47. 

X Adoro Scripturo) plenitudinem. — Scriptum esse, doceat Her- 
mogenis olncina; si non est scriptum, timeat vtu illud adjicien- 
tibus, aut detrahentibus destinatum. Tertul. advor. Hermog. 


the fulness of the Scriptures. Let Hermogenes 
show that it is written; if it be not written, let him 
fear that wo appointed for those that add, or dimi- 
nish.^^ In another place, thus,* "We have the 
apostles of the Lord for our authors; who never 
brought in any thing at their own will, but what 
- doctrine they had from Christ, they faithfully de- 
livered to the nations; wherefore if an angel from 
heaven should preach otherwise to us, we would 
pronounce him accursed.^' To this objection [the 
apostles did not know all or if they did, they did 
not deliver all] he replies, " That both ways, such 
reproach Christ, as if he had sent apostles either 
unskilful, or unfaithful/^t Again, "In matters of 
faith, men must argue no other way than from the 
Scriptures/^ In short, he lays down the doctrines 
of this age in a confession of faith, agreeable to 
that which is called the apostles' creed, and says, 
" They are not doubted of by any amongst us, but 
heretics/' In the like manner speaks Origen,J who 
lived also in this age, of the perfection of the Scrip- 

* Apostolos Domini habemus authores, qui nee ipsi quicquam 
ex suo arbitrio, quod inducerent, elegerunt; sed acceptam a 
Christo disciplinam fideliter nationibus assignaverunt. Itaque 
etiam si angelus de coelis aliter evangelizaret, anathema dicere- 
tur a nobis. Idem de Prsesc. Hseret. 

t Solent dicere, non omnia apostolos scisse, — omnia quidem 
apostolos scisse, sed non omnia omnibus tradidisse; in utroque 
Christum reprehensioni subjicientes, qui aut minus instructos, 
aut parum simplices apostolos miserit. Ibid. Aliunde suadere 
non possent de rebus fidei nisi ex Uteris fidei. Ibid. 

X Id. ibid. Origen. in Levit. Horn. 5. torn. 1. 


ture: "In the two Testaments every word that ap- 
pertains to God may be required and discussed, and 
all knowledge of things out of them may be under- 
stood; but if any thing remains, which the Holy 
Scripture does not determine, no other third Scrip- 
ture ought to be received to authorize any know- 
ledge.'^ And more in other places.^ See also a 
large confession of faith by him, and Gregory Neo- 
cesar, containing the doctrines that we hold.t 

JeromeJ who died A. D. 420, says thus, " What- 
soever we affirm, we ought to prove out of the Holy 
Scriptures. The speakers' words have not so much 
authority as the Lord's command." 

Ambrose§ also, who was born about the year 
333, is of the same judgment. " We ought to add 
nothing, no, not for caution, to God's command; for 
if thou dost add, or diminish, it is a prevaricating 
of the command; the pure and simple form of the 
command is to be kept. Nothing therefore, seem 
it never so good, ought to be added to it. There- 
fore we ought not to add to or take away from the 

* Horn. 2. in Hieremiam. 

t Madgeburg. Cent. 3. p. 34, 35. 

t Hieron. in Psal. 98. 

§ Nihil, vel cautionis gratici jungere nos debemus mandate. 
Si quid enim vel addas, vel detrahas, prosvaricatio quoedam vi- 
detur esse mandati, pura enim et simplex mandati forma ser- 
vanda. Nihil vel quod bonum videtur, addendum est. Docet 
igitur nos pra^sentis lectionis series ncquo detrahere aliquid di- 
vinis dcbore mandatis, ncque addere. Ambr. torn. 4. do Pa- 
radis. cap. 12. 


commands of God/' Again, he saith, " Who shall 
speak where the Scripture is silent?''^ Augustine 
(born A. D. 355) subscribes the same doctrine. 
" In those things which are laid down plainly in 
the Scripture, all those things are found which be- 
long to faith, or direction of life.t " Let us not 
hear, this I say, this you say, but let us hear, thus 
says the Lord;± there is God's book, to whose au- 

* Sanctis Scripturis non loquentibuSj quis loquetur? Idem, 
de Voc. Gent. 1. 2. c. 3. 

t In iis quae aperte in Scriptura posita sunt, inveniuntur ilia 
omniaj quEe continent fidem moresque vivendi. Aug. de Doct. 
Christ, torn. 3. 1. 2. c. 9. 

t Non audiamus, haec dico, haec dicis, sed audiamus, hsBC 
dicit Dominus. Sunt certe libri Dominici, quorum autoritati, 
utrique consentimus, utrique credimusj ibi quaeramus eccle- 
siam, ibi discutiamus causam nostram ; auferantur ilia de medio, 
quae adversus nos invicem, non ex divinis canonicis libris, sed 
aliunde recitamus ; quia nolo humanis documentis, sed divinis 
oraculis sanctam ecclesiam demonstrari. Idem de Unitat. 
Eccles. cap. 3. Legite nobis haec de lege, de prophetis, de 
Psalmis, de ipso evangelio, de apostolicis Uteris ; legite et credi- 
mus. Idem. ibid. cap. 6. Ipse Dominus Jesus discipulos testi- 
moniis legis et prophetarum confirmandos esse magis judicavit. 
Haec sunt causae nostrae documenta, haec fundamenta, h^c fir- 
mamenta. Idem. ibid. cap. 16. Nemo ex me quaerat senten- 
tiam meam, sed potius audiamus oracula, nostrasque ratiunculas 
divinis summittamus afFatibus. August, de Mor. Eccl. Cath. 
cap. 7. torn. 1. Per Scripturas divinas multo tutius ambulatur. 
Controversia ex eadem Scriptura terminetur. Id. de Doct. 
Christ cap. 8. Sententias Ambrosi, Hieronymi, &c. non ob 
hoc interponere volui, ut cujusquam hominis sensum tanquam 
Scripturae canonicae auctoritatem sequendum arbitreris. Id. 
Epist. 112. 


thority we both consent, both believe. There let 
us seek the church, there let us discuss our cause. 
Let those things be taken from amongst us which 
we quote one against another, from any source 
but the divine canonical books; for I will not, 
that the holy church be demonstrated from the 
documents of men, but from the oracles of God.^^ 
Again, " Read us these things out of the law, out of 
the prophets, or psalms, or gospel, or the apostles' 
epistles; read ye, and we believe.'^ Again, ^^ Our 
Lord Jesus himself did rather judge that his disci- 
ples should be confirmed by the testimony of the 
law and prophets. These are the proofs, founda- 
tion, and strength of our cause.'' Again, "Let no 
man ask me my opinion, but let us hearken to the 
Scripture, and submit our petty reasonings to the 
word of God. We walk much safer according to 
the Scripture; controversies are to be determined 
by the Scripture." Again, " I insert the opinion 
of Ambrose, Jerome, &c., not that thou shouldst 
think that the sense of any man is to be followed 
as the authority of canonical Scripture." Augus- 
tine has abundance more in many places of such 
doctrine, and he was above a thousand years before 

Chrysostom also, who lived in the same age, and 
died about the year 407, taught the same doctrine, 
in this point, as the reformed churches now do. 
Thus he writes: "Would it not be an absurd and 
preposterous thing, that when we have to do with 



men in matters of money, we believe them not, but 
count it after them; but when we are to judge of 
things, we are simply drawn into their opinions; and 
that, when we have the law of God for an exact rule, 
balance, and square of all things. Wherefore I be- 
seech and entreat you all, that you matter not, what 
one or another thinks of these things; but that 
you would consult the Holy Scriptures concerning 
them.'^* In another place, thus: "These things 
which are in the Holy Scripture, are clear and 
right; whatsoever is necessary, is manifest there- 
in/^t Many more testimonies we might have from 
this author, and others quoted in the note,t but 
brevity forbids the transcribing of their words. To 
conclude this particular, take the testimony of a 

dpi^fxoo Kctt ^f/«(pa) TcuTO zTTTTgiTruv, bTTip cTs TT^xy/ualocv '^h'pt^ofJt.ivcv; ATr'ACiog 
7*? Kiti yyat/iAQVit KUt kavqva, TfiDV d'itm vofAcev Tm a.7rQ<^dL<jrtv'^ ^lo ttcl- 

gdiKAXU) iCdLt ^iOfJLcLl TTdLV^OOV VfJLm fit?iSv7sC Ti Ttt SilVl KOt Ta <^ilVt ^OkU 
TTSpl TTQvlooVi TTcLgdi Tm ygAipCDV TCtvjcL CtTTcivlcl 7ruV^etVi(T^i. ChiyS. Hom. 

13. in 2 Cor. 

t Tetvra. crctcpn Kctl rj^-ict tcl (arcig'X tai? -8-g/at/c ygA< Udvlct fret 
avctynAiA S'uKct, Idem Homil. 3. in 2 Thess. cap. 2. 

t Cyprian, lib. 2. Epist. 3. et ad Quintinum, et ad Pompeium; 
et ad Jubajanum. Aula^KUg ua-iv ad ayiAt kai ^ioTrviutrTot ygct<pcti 
^go? T>jv TH? ctha^-UAc i'TTctyyiXictv. Athanas. torn. 1. pag. 1. *H /ubv 
eLKn^nc }cAi gyjrg/Sw? u; tov ku^iov Trta-Ttg ipctvi^et tto-qi Koi^io-rnKiv sx, Tm 
^iiocv y^ct<^m yivacTKOfAivn t6 Kut av a.ytva)(7H.o/uivii. Idem. torn. i. 398. 
*H ^iiet yga.<p» TTAvlm ari-tv iKtivafJigA. Idem. pag. 114. vide etiam 
pag. 217. 428. Tot /Jtiv ff-v/upma. thi; y^^ipctt; J'i^iT^cti^ Tat cTs ctworgut 
aTTo^AKhiiv. Basil. Mag. in Moral, lib. Sum. 72. cap. 1. vide etiam 
eundem. Sum. 80. cap. 22. et Homil. de Confes. fidei. et passim. 


council, wherein are many witnessing together, that 
the Scripture is so perfect that nothing is to be add- 
ed to it.* Ambrose said, " Anathema to him, that 
adds anything to the Scripture, or takes from it; 
and all the bishops said, let him be accursed.'^ And 
their own canon law,t reciting the words of Cyprian, 
" That the Scripture must be followed, and not cus- 
tom or traditions,^^ says, " If Christ only is to be 
heard, we ought not to regard what any one before 
us thought was to be done; but what Christ, who 
was before all, did; neither ought we to follow the 
custom of men, but the truth of God; since the 
Lord has said by the prophet Isaias, " In vain do 
they worship me, teaching the commands and doc- 
trine of men.'' And again,J " It is not lawful for 
the emperor, or any other person piously disposed, 
to presume any thing against the divine precepts, 
nor to do any thing that is contrary to the rules of 
the evangelists, prophets, or apostles." Then their 
writings must be perfect, or we shall often be at a 
loss for want of a rule to direct us. All these, and 
multitudes more, taught this long before Luther. 

^ Concil. Aquileien. Surius. torn. 1. de Concil. p. 477. 
t Corp. Jur. Can. Distinct. 8, c. si Solus. 
% Ibid. Distinct. 10. c. non licet. 


II. That the People ought to read the Scripture^ 
and therefore it ought to he translated into 
Vulgar Tongues^ was a Doctrine taught long 
before Luther. 

By Chrysostom,* '' ' Let the word of God dwell 
in you richly^ — he doth not say only ' let it dwell in 
in you/ but ' in great abundance.' Hear this, ye 
worldly men, that have wives and children, how he 
commands you to read the Scriptures, and that not 
slightly, but with all diligence. Hear this, I pray 
you, all ye that are careful about the things of this 
life, and get you Bibles, which are the medicines of 
your souls. Ignorance of the Scriptures is the cause 
of all evils. We go to war without our weapons, 
how then can we be safe V^ &c. In another place, 
he instructed the people, "That when they went 
from the congregation to their houses, they should 
take their Bibles, and call their wives and children 
to participate of the discourse of the things that were 
said.'' And in another place, he exhorts them dili- 
gently to attend the reading of the Holy Scripture, 
''Not only when they came to the assembly, but 

* 'Aicovtrctjs o<rot is-Ti Kocr/Aticot jcai yvv£it}tog kai TTAtSm 7r^oi(rrcta-^i^ 
7em iccti Cjuiv iTriTgiTTii fxdLKt(7i-dL TdLC ygcKpug dLVdUvoo^icm. Kat/ ovK aTTKoo; 
ovh a; irv^iv, cikka /u{}a ttokkhq rug (TTrovSuc. — ^aKova-ctli, TrctgctKA^^co 
9rityjig oi j^tcoltKOt nAl Klaa-^i /^i/^xtct (pct^/udLKA t«? 4'^X^^' Touto TTAvlm 
airtciv rm xit^av, to /ulu itJ^ivm Tctc ygcKpag. Xcc^tc ottkoiv ug ttoM/uov 
/ictSi^o/uiv Ka.1 Tra; gcTs/ <ra^nvstt, &c, Chrysost. in Coloss. Homil. 9. 
Item in Mat. Homil. 2. in Mat. Hom. 5. to this purpose also, de 
Lazar. Hom, 3. in Genes. Homil, 29. In Johan. Homil. 1. 


at home to take the Sacred Scriptures into their 
hands;'^ and this he does by an argument drawn 
from the great profit that they may receive thereby. 
Elsewhere, he also mentions, that the Syrians, Egyp- 
tians, Indians, Persians, Ethiopians, and multitudes 
more, had the doctrines of the Scripture translated 
into their own tongues. 

The like also by Saint Augustine,* " It is come 
to pass that the Scripture, wherewith so many dis- 
eases of men^s wills are healed, proceeding from 
one tongue, which fitly might be dispersed through 
the world, being spread far and wide by means of 
the divers languages whereinto it is translated, is 
thus made known to nations for their salvation; 
which, when they read, they desire nothing else but 
to attain to the mind of him that wrote it, and so to 
the will of God, according to which we believe such 
men spake/^ 

To the new doctrine of Hosius, president at the 
council of Trent,! " That a distaff was fitter for 
women than a Bible,^^ we will oppose the testimony 
of Theodoret,J of the old practice in the church on 
this point: "^ You shall every where see these points 
of our faith to be known and understood, not only 
by such as are teachers in the church, but even of 
cobblers, and smiths, and weavers, and all kinds of 
artificers; yea all our women, not they only who 

* Aug. de Doct. Christ, lib. 2. cap. 5. 
t Hos. de Expres. Dei Verb. 
t Tlieodorot. de Curand : Grceco. aftect. lib. 5. 


are book-learned, but they also that get their living 
with their needle, yea maid servants, and waiting 
women; and not citizens only, but husbandmen of 
the country, are very skilful in these things; yea, 
you may hear our ditchers, and neat-herds, and 
wood-setters, discoursing of the Trinity and crea- 
tion,'' &c. 

III. That Religious Worship was not to be given 

to Images^ or Reliques of Saints^ was taught 

long before Luther, 

When Polycarp suffered, the envious persecutors 
not willing that his body should be honourably 
buried, as the Christians were desirous to do, moved 
the proconsul not to deliver to the Christians the 
body of Polycarp, lest they, leaving Christ, should 
fall to worship him; concerning which the Church 
of Smyrna, in their epistle to the church at'Philo- 
milium, &c., said, " This they said, being ignorant 
of this, that we can never forsake Christ, and that 
we can worship no other; for we worship Christ as 
the Son of God, the martyrs we love as disciples 
and followers of the Lord.''"^ 

About the time of Sylvester I., who lived A. D. 
314, a council was so far from worshipping images, 
that "they would not have any pictures in the 
churches, lest that which is worshipped or adored 

* Euseb. Eccles. Histor. lib. 4. cap. 15, 


should be painted on walls/'* Also, about the year 
700, a synod at Constantinople (which the Greeks 
call the seventh,) not only condemned the worship 
of images, but also images themselves, and that they 
should be cast out of churches. Gregory, bishop 
of Neocsesarea (not the ancient of that title, but 
another since him), wrote a book against images, 
which was read and approved by this council, and 
inserted into the synodical acts as a common de- 
cree; in which book there are testimonies of Scrip- 
ture and fathers against the idolatry of images; and 
that they would not allow any image or picture of 
Christ, but anathematized them that should draw 
his effigies in material colours, (Can. 8 — 13), and 
determined that there was one only image appointed 
by Christ, to wit, the blessed bread and wine in 
the eucharist [Lord's supper] which represent to 
us the body and blood of Christ. The second 
Nicene synod was against this, and for images, and 
a synod at Francfort against the second council and 
their images.t 

Pezelius gives us this account, that Leo III., em- 
peror, called a synod about the year 730, in which 
it was controverted, whether images were to be 
worshipped, &c. the issue whereof was that the 
fathers then present, (except only Germanus, who 

* Placuit, picturas in ecclesia esse non debcre ; ne quod coli- 
tur, aut adoratur, in parietibus depingatur. ConciI.Eliber. Can. 

t Illiric. Calal. Test. Verit. pag. 73, 74. 


therefore resigned, and one Anastasius was chosen 
in his room) condemned and subscribed, that the 
worshipping of images and relics was mere idola- 
try, contrary to the Scripture; and the intercession 
of saints a fable. The emperor put the decrees of 
the synod into execution, commanded the images 
to be brought into the midst of the city and burned; 
and the pictures on walls to be whited over, and so 
defaced; and wrote to pope Gregory III. (according 
to some, Gregory II.) and commanded him, as he 
would keep in his favour, to do the like. After him 
his son Constantinus, called Copronymus, out of his 
zeal, called a synod at Byzantium, A. D. 754, which 
is called the seventh general council, where were 
present 338 fathers, where the question was dis- 
cussed, whether it was lawful that images should so 
much as be in churches; they receiving the decrees 
of the first and second councils of Constantinople, 
Ephesus, Nice, and Chalcedon, determined with 
one consent, that all images should, as abominations, 
be cast away. Pezel. and Lampad. Mellific. Histor. 
par. 3. pag. 37,41. 

IV. That Invocation of Angels and Saints is 
unlaivfulj was taught long before Luther. 
By the council of Laodicea which was about the 
year 364, according to Caranza, who, relating the 
canon I am to produce, for Angelos reads twice 
Jiiigulos, to evade the force of the counciFs canon, 
which he could not stand before; for which tricks 


of legerdemain their translations are little to be 
trusted to. See the Greek text. 

" Christians ought not to forsake the church of 
God, and go and call upon angels, and gather assem- 
blies, which are forbidden; if therefore any shall be 
found giving himself to this secret idolatry, let him 
be accursed, because he hath forsaken our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, and hath approached 
to idolatry.^'"^ 

The papists are so humble that they will not go 
to God, but have recourse to saints, to intercede for 
them. Who taught the contrary before Luther? 
Multitudes. One of which, because it is so much to 
the point, I will transcribe. Ambrose, who died 
A. D. 397, condemned those " who used such a mi- 
serable excuse, in that they think to go to God by 
these, as men go to a king by his nobles. Go to, 
is any man so mad or so unmindful of his salvation 
as to give the king's honour to a courtier? which if 
any do, are they not righteously condemned as guihy 
of treason ? And yet these do not think themselves 
to be guilty, who give the honour of the name of 
God to a creature, and forsaking the Lord, adore their 
fellow servants. For men go to the king by tri- 

el^iiVAt KAt ctyyiKoug ovo/ua^uv nut a-vvu^uc nxroimf ATTi^ ATrnyo^tutlAi, 

"El T/? OVV gJpg3'« TOLulnTH KiKpuJU/UiVH ilSa>KOXA'T^UA O-^OKA^CdV iff'TOi AVCt' 

^ifAct. 'Oli iytLctJtKtTTiv rov Kv^tov »iu.a>v 'luaovv Xgt<rTov^ tov t/ior tow 
3-«oy, }cctt itSocKoxAT^uct TTgoo-nK^iv. Consil. Laodic. Can. 35. Co- 
dice Canonum Eccles. Univers. Can. 131). 


bunes or officers, because the king is but a man, and 
knows not to whom to commit the state of the com- 
monwealth; but to procure the favour of God, (from 
whom nothing is hid, for he knows the works of all 
men) we need no spokesman, but a devout mind; 
for wheresoever such a one shall speak unto him, 
he will answer him/^* 

V. That there are hut two Places for the Souls 
of Men after Death, and consequently no Pur- 
gatory , was taught long before Luther. 

Augustin, born above a thousand years before 
Luther, taught, '^ That there is no middle place for 
any. He must needs be with the devil that is not 
with Christ.'^t Again, ^^The catholic faith, rest- 
ing upon divine authority, believes the first place, 
the kingdom of heaven; and the second, hell; a 

* Solent tamen pudorem passi, neglecti Dei raiser^ uti excusa- 
tione, dicentes per istos posse ire ad deum, sicuti per comites 
pervenitur ad regem. Age, nunquid tarn demens est aliquis, 
aut salutis suae immemor, ut honorificentiam regis vendicet 
comiti, cum de hac re si qui etiam tractare fuerint inventi, jure 
ut rei damnentur majestatis? et isti se non putant reos, qui 
honorem nominis Dei deferunt creaturse, et relicto domino con- 
servos adorant. Nam ideo ad regem per tribunos aut comites 
itur, quia homo utique est rex, et nescit quibus debeat rempubli- 
cam credere. Ad Deum autem (quem utique nihil latet, 
omnium enim merita novit) promerendum suffragatore non 
opus est, sed mente devota. Ubicunque enim talis loquutus 
fuerit ei, respondebit illi. Ambros. in Roman, c. 1. 

t August, de Pec. Merit, et Remis. 1. 1. c, 28* 


third we are wholly ignorant of/^* Again, " What 
Abraham says to the rich man in Luke, ' That the 
righteous, though they would, cannot go to the place 
where the wicked are tormented;' what does it 
mean, but that the godly can afford no help of mer- 
cy, though they would, to those that are shut up in 
prison after this life, that they should come out 
from thence, and that through the unchangeableness 
of God's judgmentP'^t Again, "There is no place 
for the amending of our ways but in this life; for 
after this life every one shall receive according to 
what he seeks after in this; therefore the love of 
mankind constrains us to intercede for sinners, lest 
by punishment they so end this life, that their life 
being ended, their punishment never ends/' Ano- 
ther, "Whatsoever state or condition, whether 
good or bad, a man is taken in when he dies, so 
must he abide for ever; for he shall either rest in 
eternal happiness with the saints and the Lord 
Christ, or shall be tormented in darkness with the 
wicked and the devil. "J This cannot be purgatory, 
for the papists do not say that the wicked, or the 
devils are in purgatory, but in hell. 

VI. That the Marriage of Ministers was law- 
ful, was taught long before Luther, 
Long before indeed; for the sixth of the (sup- 

* Idem. Quest. Evang. lib. 2. cap. 38. 

t Idem, ad Maced. Epist. 54. 

I Olympiodor. in 11. cap. Ecclesias. 


posed) apostolical canons, owned by the church of 
Rome, is in these words, " Let not a bishop or a 
presbyter, upon pretence of religion, put away his 
wife; but if he do, let him be excommunicated; if 
he shall persist therein, let him be deposed/'* 

The council at Ancyra also decreed, '^ That such 
as in their ordination declared their purpose to mar- 
ry, if they did so, should continue in their minis- 
try."! Another council, about the year 300, de- 
creed, " That if any should judge, that he ought not 
to partake of the oblation from a married presbyter, 
let him be accursed/' J And the first general coun- 
cil at Nice, that had this under debate after Paphnu- 
tius had delivered his judgment about it, left it at 
every minister's liberty to marrj^, or not marry, as 
they should see cause ;§ which the Romanists' canon 
law also sets down. Likewise this is fully stated in 
the sixth general council, " That the lawful mar- 
riages of holy men should be valid, but whosoever 
is found diligent should no way be hindered from 
that oflSce, because of living with his lawful wife. 
Therefore if any shall presume, contrary to the 
apostle's rules, to deprive any presbyters or deacons, 
of communion with their lawful waives, let him be 

* Caranz. Sum. Concil. p. 14. 

t Concil. Ancyran. Can. 10. Codice vero Can. Eccles. Uni- 
vers. Can. 30. 

X Codex Can. Eccles. Univers. Can. 63. Concil. Gangrens, 
Can. 4. 

§ Corp. Jur. Canon. Distin. 31. c. Nicsena Synodus. 


deposed." Well said! and if this could have been 
put into execution, the pope would have been down 
long before now, or mended his tyrannical dealings; 
and yet this stands in their canon law,* and they act 
quite contrary to it. There being so many councils, 
and so many ancient fathers in all these councils, I 
need not look for more, to tell you who taught this 
doctrine before Luther. 

VII. Comniunion in both kinds was taught long 
before Luther, 
By Ignatius; "One bread is broken to all, and 
one cup distributed to all.'^t And by Justin Mar- 
tyr; " They give to every one that is present, of 
the consecrated bread and wine, as Christ com- 
manded them. '^ J And by Cyprian; " How do we 
invite them to shed their blood for Christ in the 
confession of his name, if when they set forth to 
fight for him, we deny them his blood? How shall 
we fit them for the cup of martyrdom, if before, 
we admit them not by right of communion, to drink 
of the Lord's cup in his church?''§ In another 
place thus; " Because some men out of ignorance, 

* Jus Canon, pars prim, distinct. 31. c. quoniam in Roman. 
t Ei'c Kctt d^og rote 7ra.<7iv i^^v(p^ii^ Kcti h 7ro]n^tcv to/? okoi; Snvif^yi- 
3-H. Ignat. ad Philad. 

Aprov Kdti oivov Kctt v^dLTog KA^ctg TTetpiJ'cDKUv ivrrtTAK^ai uuTGiQ \na-ouv. 
Just. Apol. 2. in fine. 
§ Cyprian. Epist. 54. 


or simplicity, in sanctifying the cup of the Lord, and 
ministering it to the people, do not that which Christ 
the institutor thereof did and taught, I thought it 
both matter of religion and necessity, to acquaint 
you herewith by letters, that if any one is held in 
that error, the light of truth being now discovered to 
him, he might return to the root and beginning of 
our Lord's institution,'^* &c. Fully and plainly by 
Chrysostom, " That the people have as good a title 
to the cup as the minister. Sometimes, and in some 
things, there is no difference between the people and 
the priest, as in the participation of the dreadful 
mysteries; for all are equally admitted to them. In 
the time of the old law, it was not lawful for the 
people to eat of those things of which the priests 
ate; but it is not so now, for one body is offered to 
all, and one cup.''* 

I must quote here the doctrine of Leo the Great, 
who was a bishop of Rome, A. D. 440, and yet 
counted it sacrilege not to have the cup received by 
the people. He says thus, speaking of the Mani- 
chees; " And when, to cover their infidelity, they 
dare be present at our mysteries, they so carry 
themselves at the communion of the sacrament, that 
they may the more safely lie hid; they take the 
body of Christ with their unworthy mouths, but 

^ Cyprian. Epist. 63. 

uKKct TTcta-tv h <ra)fA.± ^poKiflat^ Kctt TTolijgtoy iv. Chrysost. in 2, Cor. 
Horn. 18. 


they altogether decline the drinking of the blood of 
our redemption; which I would have you to know, 
that these men, by this mark, may be made mani- 
fest, and their sacrilegious simulation be discover- 
ed; and that, being marked, they may, by priest- 
ly authority, be driven from the society of the 
saints.'^* &c. 

Because in councils there are many witnesses at 
once, let us hear them. The council at Ancyra, 
held, A. D. 308, (which, though but provincial, yet as 
Caranza says, was confirmed by the general council 
at Nice), decreed, Can. 2: "that deacons that had 
sacrificed to idols, should not deliver the bread nor 
the cup in the sacrament.'' Whence it appears that 
in that age the cup was given as well as the bread. 
And the council at Neocesarea, confirmed also by 
the Nicene council. Can. 13. decreed, "That the 
country priests, in the presence of the bishop, or 
presbyters of the city, should not give the bread, 
nor reach the cup; but if they were absent, they 
alone should do it." At the general council at 
Chalcedon, consisting of 630 fathers, the seventh ac- 

* Cumque ad tegendum infidelitatem suam nostris audeant 
interesse mysteriis, ita in sacramentorum communione se tem- 
perant, ut interdum tutius lateant; ore indigno Christi corpus 
accipiunt; sanguincm autem redemtionis nostrce haurire omnino 
declinant. Quod ideo vestram volumus scire sanctitatem, ut 
vobis hujuscemodi homines, et his rnanifestentur indiciis, et 
quorum deprehensa fuerit sacrilega simulalio, notati et proditi, 
a sanctorum societate, sacerdotali autoritate pellantur, &c. — 
Leo 1. de Quadrages. Serm. 4. 


cusation brought against Iba, bishop of Edessa, was^ 
" That there was not sufficient quantity of wine pro- 
vided, SO that those who administered, were con- 
strained to go to the taverns for more.'^* But why 
this complaint, if the people were not to drink as well 
as to eat? This being a general council, it seems, 
that through the whole church the cup was given 
to the laity. This was about the year 451, in the 
time of Leo I. In the third Toletan council it was 
decreed, that through all the churches of Spain and 
Gallicia, " the creed should be repeated with a loud 
voice, and the people make profession of their faith, 
before they receive the body and blood of Christ/^ 
At the council of Ilerda, it was decreed, " That the 
clergy that deliver Christ^s body and blood, should 
abstain from all men^s blood, even of their enemies.^'! 
I will add one more testimony of one of their bi- 
shops of Rome, full and good protestant doctrine, 
which I find in their decretals. Gelasius, who was 
bishop of Rome, (for as yet there were no popes 
properly, as they now use the w^ord,) in the year 
492, says thus, " We have found that certain hav- 
ing received a portion of the sacred body, abstain 
from the cup of his sacred blood, being entangled 
with I know not what superstition. Let them either 
receive the whole sacrament, or else let them be 
wholly excluded from receiving, because the divi- 
sion of one and the self-same mystery cannot be 

* Concil. Chalced. apud Surium, torn. 2. act. 10. 

t Concil. Herd. Can. I. apud Magdeburg. Cent. 6. p. 467. 


without grievous sacrilege/'* Well said, Gela- 
sius! Hear it, ye papists, who ask, who preached 
our doctrine before Luther? Gelasius, bishop of 
Rome, taught of old that the not partaking in both 
kinds, is 1, superstition; 2, a maiming or halving of 
the sacrament; 3, that it is grand sacrilege. Was 
your bishop in his chair when he thus determined? 
and yet will you neither believe that he erred, nor 
yet give the cup to the people, though he infallibly 
dictated this to be a duty? Surely he erred in say- 
ing so, or you err in not doing so. 

VIII. That in the LorcTs Supper after consecra- 
tion^ there is true and real Bread, and true and 
real Wine, was a Doctrine taught by many 
long before Luther. 

By Tertullian; " Christ taking the bread and dis- 
tributing it to his disciples, made it his body, say- 
ing, ^This is my body,' that is [mark this] a figure 
of my body.^t By Augustine, who brings in our 
Saviour speaking after this manner, " Ye shall not 
eat this body which ye see, nor drink that blood 
which they shall shed that will crucify me: I have 

* Comperimus autem, quod quidam sumpta tantummodo cor- 
poris sacri portione a calice sacri cruoris abstineant. Qui pro- 
cul dubio (quoniam nescio qua superstitione docentur obstringi) 
aut integra sacrainenta percipiant, aut ab integris arceantur, 
quia divisio unius ejusdemque mysterii sine grandi sacrilegio 
non potest provenire. Corpus jur. Can. Decret. pars 3. Distinct. 3. 

1 Hoc est corpus meum, i. e. figura corporis niei. Tert. adv. 
Marc. 1. 4. 



commended a certain sacrament to you, which being 
spiritually understood will quicken you.^^^ By 
Gelasius, saying, '' The sacraments which we re- 
ceive of the body and blood of Christ, are a divine 
thing, by means whereof we are made partakers of 
the divine nature, and yet the substance or nature 
of bread and wine does not cease to be, and indeed 
the^image and the similitude of the body and blood 
of Christy are celebrated in the action of the mys- 

By Ambrose; "How can that w^hich is bread, 
by consecration, be the body of Christ? By the 
words of Christ. What words of Christ? By which 
all things were made. The Lord commanded, and 
the heaven was made; the Lord commanded, and 
the earth and the sea were made. Seest thou then 
how powerful is the word of Christ ? If therefore 
there be such virtue in the words of our Lord to 
make those things that were not, to begin to be, 
how much more powerful is his word, that they 
remain the same they were, and yet be changed 
into another thing ?''^ J 

^ Non hoc corpus quod videtis manducaturi estis, et bibituri 
ilium sanguinem, quern fusuri sunt, qui me crucifigent ; sacra- 
mentum aliquod vobis commendavi : spiritualiter intellectum, 
vivificabit vos. August, in Psal. 98. 

t Certa saeramenta quae sumimus corporis et sanguinis Christi 
divina res est. et tamen esse non desinit substantia vel natura 
panis et vini. Gelasi. de Duab. Natur. in Christ, contra Eu- 

t Si ergo tanta vis est in sermone Domini Jesu, ut inciperent 


This author acknowledges a change, but not a 
transubstantiating change, for he expressly says, 
"They are what they were.'^ It was bread and 
wine before, and therefore though set apart for holy 
use, yet not changed into another nature, so as, for 
substance, to cease to be what they were. And he 
instances the change which takes place in conver- 
sion. We are made new creatures, but not by being 
changed into a new substance, but our souls are set 
upon right objects, &c. And when the objection is 
made, " But I do not see blood in kind,^' he replies, 
"But it has the likeness or similitude of it; and 
thou drinkest that which has the resemblance of the 
precious blood of Christ." This was taught then 
above a thousand years before Luther by this father. 
And so it was by Chrysostom also, who says, " If 
it be perilous to put these hallowed vessels to pri- 
vate use, in which is not the true body of Christ, 
,but the mystery of his body is contained therein, 
how much more,''^ &c. 

esse quaB non erant; quanto magis operatorius est, ut SINT 
QU^ ERANT et in aliud commutentur ? Tu ipse eras, sed 
eras vetus creatura ; posteaquam consecratus es, nova creatura 
esse coepisti. Sed forte dicis, speciem sanguinis non video. 
Sed habet similitudinem. Similitudinem preciosi sanguinis bibis. 
Ambros. de Sacram. lib. 4. cap. 4. edit, (mihi) Paris, 15^29. 
* Chrysost. in Mat. torn, postr. 2. Horn. 11. 


IX. That the Bishop of Rome was not the Uni- 
versal Head of the Catholic Churchy nor the 
Judge in whose definitive sentence all were 
bound to acquiesce^ was taught long before 


In the second century after Christ, there were 
six councils, provincial only, the cause of which 
was the difference about the feast of Easter. Ire- 
naeus,* president of the synod in France, wrote to 
Victor, then bishop of Rome, and sharply repre- 
hended him for going about to sever from the unity 
in communion all the churches of Asia; which did 
not please all the bishops. So Eusebius. In the 
year 418 was the sixth council of Carthage, which 
resisted three popes one after another. z\bout the 
year 450 the council of Chalcedon withstood Leo, 
then bishop of Rome, in the question of supremacy. 

Illyricus, upon his word, affirms, that he saw an 
epistle of the bishops of France and Germany (writ- 
ten by Avenlinus^ to An:^.:s:us. bishop of Rome, 
and others of his accomplices, the sum whereof 
was, to admonish the pope and those bishops of 
Italy that sided with him, to let them alone, and 
not proceed to exercise their tyranny over them. 
The whole epistle is to be found in Illyricus, Catal. 
Test. Verit. pag. 41. 

The bishops also of Belgia, about the year 560, 

* Euseb. Histor. Eccles. lib. 5, cap. '23. Qti. et lib. 7. cap. 5. 


contested with the pope. Their epistle to pope 
Nicolas I. is taken by Illyricus out of Aventinus; 
in the close of which epistle they declare that for 
the causes beforementioned: "They would not 
stand to his decrees, nor hear his voice, nor fear his 
thundering bulls. Thou condemnest them that obey 
not the decrees of the senate. We assault thee with 
thine own weapon, that despisest the decree of our 
Lord God. The Holy Spirit is the author of all 
the churches which are spread both far and near; 
the city of our God, whose free denizens we are, is 
greater than that city which by the holy prophets 
is called Babylon, which exalts herself to heaven, 
and falsely glories that she never has erred, nor can 

Ludovicus, the emperor, son of Charles the Great, 
and the nobles and clergy in his time, did not own 
the bishop of Rome to have that headship and power 
which they now claim and usurp ; when by his own 
authority, without any mention of the pope, he as- 

* Hisce de causis, cum fratribus nostris et collegis, neque 
edictis tuis stamus, neque vocem tuam agnoscimus, neque tuas 
buUas tonitruaque tua timemus; tu eos qui senates consultis 
non parent, impietalis condemnas. Nos tuo te ense jugulamus, 
qui edictum Domini Dei nostri conspuis, — Spiritus Sanctus autor 
est omnium ecclesiarum, quk longissime et latissime terrarum 
orbis porrigitur. Civitas Dei nostri, cujus municipes sumus, 
major est urbe, quaB Babylonia a sacris vatibus appellatur, quoe 
— coelo se acquat, neque unquam se errasse, aut erraro posse 
mendaciter gloriatur. lllyric. Catal. Test. Verit. (ex Aventin.) 
pag. 80. 


sembled several councils. Besides others, he called 
four several synods for the reformation of the 
church of France, viz. at Mentz, at Paris, at Lyons, 
and at Toulouse, to inquire what was held answera- 
ble or contrary to the revealed will of God, and 
wherein they departed from the Holy Scripture. 
He was so famous for the church's good procured 
by him, that Platina, bewailing the most horrible 
wickedness of the popes and their clergy in his 
days, cries out, ^^0 Ludovice, utinam nunc viveres.^' 
Ludovicus, I wish thou wert now alive.* 

Hincmar, archbishop of Rheims, openly pub- 
lished, " That it was not lawful for the inferior 
bishops, upon any public or general occasion, to 
consult the pope, unless they had first advised there- 
of with their own archbishops; that it was needless 
for archbishops to expect resolutions from the see of 
Rome concerning such things as are already sen- 
tenced in Holy Scripture, in the councils, canons 
and decrees of the church.'' He expounded those 
w^ords, Tu es Petrus, thou art Peter, thus, "Upon 
this sure and solid confession of faith which thou 
hast made, will I build my church." And as touch- 
ing the power of binding and loosing, he wrote to 
the pope himself, Leo IV., " That that power was 
passed and derived from St. Peter, and from th^ 
rest of the apostles, to all the chief heads of the 
church; and that St. Peter's privilege took place 

* Illyric. Catal. p. 86. 


only where men judge according to the equity of 
St. Peter, and is of force wheresoever that equity is 
used.'^* If Luther had now been born, (as he was 
not for many hundred years after) this would have 
been called Luther's doctrine. 

Likewise when Leo IV. encroached upon the 
church of Germany, Luithpert, archbishop of Mentz, 
writing to Lewis, king of Germany, speaks much 
against the pope, saying, " That the church's head 
ached, and if speedy remedy were not taken, it 
would quickly distil upon the members.'' 

Arnulphus, in a synod held at Rheims, noted the 
pope to be antichrist;! saying, " What, reverend 
fathers, what I say think you him to be, who sitteth 
thus on a lofty throne, in purple robes, and glitter- 
ing gold ? Certainly, if he be void of charity, lifted 
and puffed up only with knowledge, he is anti- 
christ, sitting in the temple of God ; but if he want 
both charity and knowledge, then he is an idol; 

* Magdeb. Centur. 9. pag. 338. Proceres regni affirmare, 
inquit, ilia nova et inaudita esse, quod papa velit sibi dc jure 
regnorum judicia sumere ; non posse eum simul episcopum et 
regem esse, &c. llincmar. Apud Magd. Cent. 9. p. 356. Monet 
pontificem ne tarn temere excommunicationes prfficipiat. Sed 
patiatur causas diligentius in suis provinciis cognosci, et juxta 
canones dijudicari. Hincmar. Magd. Cen. 9. p. 524. Luitlipert, 
Otgarius, Guntherus, Colonicnsis, Thetgondus, Treverensis, et 
alii Episcopi {3elgici graviter tyrannidem Rom. Pont, redargu- 
unt. Magd. Cent. 9. p. 338. item Ecclcsia; Grweorum, et Im- 
peratores contra Papam, vide Mag. Centur. 9. 340, 341. 

* See Magdeb. Cent. IG. p. 48G— 489. 


and to seek to him for answer is to inquire of mar- 
ble stones.'^ 

Theophylact, archbishop of the Bulgarians, ex- 
pounding these words, [Upon this rock will I build 
my church,] made no mention of the pope of Rome, 
saying, " That confession that Peter made, should 
become the foundation of the faithful, in such sort 
that every man that would build the house, must 
necessarily put this confession for his foundation." 
Of the power of the keys he said, " Though it were 
only said to Peter, To thee will I give, &c., yet 
that power was once given to all the apostles, w^hen 
he said. Whose sins ye remit, they shall be remit- 

Famous is the history of Otho,t who assembled a 
great synod in the church of St. Peter at Rome, of 
archbishops, and bishops in Rome, from Milan, 
Ravenna, Germany and France; to which pope 
John XIII. would not come; to whom a letter was 
sent by the emperor, that he would make his ap- 
pearance to answer to the things of which he was 
accused (and they were very many and very hei- 
nous)t to which letter he returned this answer; " I 

* Theoph. in Mar. c. 16. et Joh. 20. 

t Magd. Centur. 10. de Synod, pag. 433, &c. 

t Johannes 13. venationibus magis quam orationibus vacabat, 
et multa alia auditu indigna de eo dicuntur. Caranz. Sum. 
Concil. pag. 787. In hoc Concilio, objectis in Johannem crimi- 
nibus, homicidii, perjurii, sacrilegii, incestus, aliorumque ne- 
fandorum scelerum, &c. — Luitprand, apud Baron, in Spond. 
Epitom. in annum, 963. 


hear say you mean to create another pope, which if 
you doj I excommunicate you by the Omnipotent 
God, that you have no power to ordain any, nor to 
celebrate the mass/' When this letter was reading, 
the archbishop of Trevers, and other bishops of 
Lorrain, Liguria, and Emilia came in, by whose 
advice the emperor and synod sent this answer: 
" That they made light of his excommunication, 
and they would return it upon himself; for when 
Judas had become a murderer, he could tie none but 
himself, strangling himself with a halter/' — Otho 
deposed pope John, and took into his hands the no- 
minating and making of popes afterwards. As yet 
emperors were not come to wait barefoot at the 
pope's palace, nor to hold his stirrups. 

When the pope, A. D. 996, sent a cardinal into 
France to consecrate a church there, the prelates of 
France hearing of it, "judged it to be sacrilegious 
presumption, proceeding from blind ambition, that 
he vshould transgress apostolical and canonical or- 
ders, especially being confirmed by many autho- 

Gregory VII., strictly forbidding priests to mar- 
ry, writes to the princes of Germany, " That they 
should not frequent the masses of married priests:"! 

* Glaber. Historiarum, lib. 2. cap. 4. Baron. Annales, Ann. 

\ Adversus Hildebrandi Decretum (quo magmi severitate 
sacerdotum conjugium damnabat per universum Chrislianuni 
orbem) infremuit tota factio cloricorum ; homincni plane lia^- 



but yet the bishops in Germany refused to yield to 
this decree, or to depose those priests that were mar- 
ried, defending themselves by the authority of the 
Scripture, ancient councils, and the primitive church ; 
adding thereto, '' That the commandment of God, 
and human necessity directly oppugned the pope's 
decree/^ They long continued to defend their li- 
berty, insomuch that, seeing neither reason, nor 
prayer, nor disputation would serve the turn, the 
clergy consulting together what to do; some ad- 
vised, not to return again to the synod, others to 
return and thrust out the archbishop from his seat, 
and give him due punishment of death for his de- 
servings, that by the example of him, others might 
be warned hereafter, never to attempt that thing any 
more to the prejudice of the church, and the right- 
ful liberty of ministers. The archbishop spake 
them fair, and bade them be of good hope; he 
would send again to Hildebrand (the pope) and they 
should have what would content their minds; will- 
ing them, in the mean time, to continue as they 
had done, in their cure and ministry. The next year 

reticum, et vesani dogmatis esse clamitans. — Nauclerus, vol. 2. 
General. 36. apud >Iagd. cent. 11. p. 359. Quod sacerdotibus 
connubiis interdixit Hildeb. Pontifex, plerisque episcopis no- 
vum dogma, omnium maxime pestifera haeresis, quae unquam 
Christianum pertarbassel regnum. visa est. Quamobrem Ita- 
liae, Germaniae, Gallias pontifices, Hildeb. contra pietatem 
Christianara, verbis, faclis agere, facere decernunt; eundem am- 
bitus, haereseos, impiet^tis, sacrilegii condemnant. Avent. lib, 
5. Annal. Illyric. Catal. et Mag. cent. 11. pag. 3S9. 


the pope sent bishop Curiensis as legate to the arch- 
bishop of Mentz, and assembled again a council, 
where the clergy were commanded, under pain of 
the pope^s curse, to renounce their wives or their 
livings. The clergy still defended their cause with 
great constancy. In the end it broke forth into 
such a tumult, that the legate and archbishop hardly 
escaped with their lives. After this, the churches 
would choose their ministers themselves, and not 
send them to the bishops (the enemies of ministers' 
marriage) to be confirmed and inducted; but put 
them to their office without knowledge or leave of 
the bishop. 

The pope wrote also about this matter to Otho, 
bishop of Constance; but this bishop would neither 
separate those that were married, from their wives, 
nor yet forbid them to marry that were unmarried. 

The clergy of France stoutly opposed the pope's 
bull for the excommunicating of married priests 
that would not divorce their wives, declaring their 
reasons from the word of God, from councils, and 
from the necessity of nature; and resolved to lose 
their benefices, rather than put away their wives; 
saying, moreover, " If married priests would not 
please the pope, he must call to angels from heaven 
to serve the churches.''* But if these clergymen 
would not be at the pope's beck, neither would the 
angels in heaven; whatever other angels might do. 

* Fox, Acts and Mon. vol. 1. pair. !227. 


In the pope's proceeding against Henry, the ena- 
peror, he was opposed by the council at Worms, in 
which were the bishops, not only of Saxony, but of 
the whole empire of the Germans, who agreed and 
concluded upon the deposing of Hildebrand; and 
Roulandus* was sent to Rome, who, in the name of 
the council, commanded the pope to yield up his 

This same pope was again judged and condemned 
by another council held at Brixia, where were di- 
vers bishops of Italy, Lombardy and Germany, 
in which condemnation is recited amongst other 
things, " his usurping authority over the emperor, 
and taking away and forbidding the marriage of 

Towards the end of the year 1000, (when there 
were again two popes at once, Urban and Clement 
III.) William Rufus,t king of England, w^ould suf- 
fer no appeal from England to the pope of Rome, 
as it was not lawful to do from the time of William 
the Conqueror. And when Anselm, archbishop of 
Canterbury, appealed to Rome, the king charged 
him with treason for so doing. All the bishops of 

" Ronlandus sacerdos, literas imperatoris deferens, absque 
omni salutationis honore, tibi (Hildebrandum compellans) in- 
quit, imperator, et ItaliaB, Galliae, Germaniseque episcopi, prae- 
cipiunt, ut te, munere quod astu, pecunia, gratia occupasti, ab- 
dices. Non enim verus pastor, neque pater, neque pontifex 
es, sed fur, lupus, latro et tyrannus. — Aventin. lib. 5. An. Magd. 
Cent. 11. p. 425. 

t Fox, Acts and Mon. vol. 1, p. 242. 


the realm stood on the king's side against Anselm: 
though Anselm pleaded hard, saying, " Should I 
forswear Saint Peter, I should deny Christ/' But 
all the rest of the bishops disowned any appeal from 
England to Rome. 

About the year 1105, two famous bishops of 
Mentz, named Henry and Christian, recorded to be 
very virtuous and well-disposed, were cruelly and 
tyrannically dealt with b)^ the pope. Henry would 
make no appeal to the pope, but said, "- I appeal to 
the Lord Jesus Christ, as to the most high and just 
judge, and cite you (the two cardinals that had done 
him wrong) before his judgment, there to answer me 
before the high judge."* Upon which, they scoffing- 
ly said, " Go you before first, and we will follow 
after.'^ Not long after the same Henry died, where- 
of the two persecuting cardinals having intelligence, 
said one to another jestingly, " Behold, he is gone 
before, and we must follow after according to our 
promise." A little after they both died in one day. 

About this time the bishop of Florence taught 
and preached that antichrist was now manifest; for 
which pope Paschalis burned his books.t 

At this time also historians mention two more 
famous preachers, Gerhardus and Dulcinus Navar- 
ensis, who earnestly laboured and preached against 
the church of Rome, defending and maintaining 

* Acts and Mon. vol. 1, p. 2.">4. 
t Acts and Mon. 254. 
T 2 


■^^ that praver was not more holy in one place than 
in another: that the pope was antichrist; that the 
clergv and prelates of Rome were reprobates, and 
she the very whore of Babylon spoken of in the 
Revelations." These two brought thirty more with 
them into England, who by the king and prelates 
were all burnt in the forehead, and so driven out of 
the realm, and after that were slain by the pope. 

At this time also in the city of Toulouse, tliere 
was a great multitude of men and women whom the 
pope's commissioners persecuted and condemned 
for heretics: of whom some were scourged naked, 
some chased away. One of the articles they main- 
tained was. that the bread in the sacrament, after 
consecration, was not the very body of the Lord.* 

In Germany also, Robert Abbot, of Duits, preached 
against the pope's jurisdiction as to temporal do- 
minion, and interpreted that place. •'Thou art Peter, 
and upon this rock will I build my church/* to be 
understood concerning Christ. &c. 

Besides these, Peter Bruis, A. D. 1126. and at\er 
him his disciple Henry. A. D. 1147, in France, drew 
many provinces from the church of Rome, preached 
against transubstantiation, the sacrifice of the mass, 
suflrages and oblations for the dead, purgatory, 
worshipping of images, invocation of saints, single 
life of priests, pilgrimages, superfluous holy days, 
consecration of water,oil,frankincense, Sec. The pope 

* Fox. Acts and Mon. vol. ] . p. 299. 


and his prelates they called "princes of Sodom ;'^ 
the church of Rome they termed "Babylon, the 
mother of fornication and confusion/^ This Peter 
Bruis preached the word of God among the people 
of Toulouse for the space of twenty years, with 
great commendation, and at last was burned.* 

I must but name Honorius, bishop of Augusta, 
who set out the iniquity and wickedness of the 
church of Rome to the life; recited largely by Du- 
plessis, Myst. of Iniq. p. 294. And Nordbertus, A. 
D. 1125, who protested to Bernard, that antichrist 
he knew certainly would be revealed in this pre- 
sent generation. And John of Sarisbury,t who, 
visiting the pope, was asked by him, "What men 
thought of the pope, and of the Roman church," 
and told him to his face, " They say the pope is a 
burden to all, and almost intolerable.'^ And much 

Did the papists never hear of the Waldenses, or 
have they not been vexed with their doctrine before 
Luther was born, that they ask where was our doc- 
trine and religion before Luther? 

Did the council of Constance condemn the doc- 
trines of Wickliffe and Huss as erroneous, and was 
there such a noise about them, and yet did not the 
church of Rome hear of our doctrines (then owned 
by them) before Luther? They can never make us 
believe it. 

* Petr. Cluniacens. lib. 1. Epist. 1 et 2. 

t Job. Sarisbur. in Policr. lib. (3. cap. 24. Dupless. 319. 


Let Rainerius, a friar, writing of the Waldenses, 
or Pauperes de Lugduno, satisfy them, who says, 
" Among all the sects that are or ever will be, none 
can be more pernicious to the church of God [he 
means the church of Rome] than that of Lyons.'^ 
And he gives these three reasons, 1. " Because it 
has continued a longer time than any. Some say 
that it has been ever since the time of Sylvester; 
others say from the times of the apostles. 2. Be- 
cause it is more general, for there is almost no coun- 
try into which this sect has not crept. 3. Because 
all others procure horror by their blasphemies 
against God; this of the Lyonists has a great ap- 
pearance of piety, inasmuch as they live uprightly 
before men, and put their trust in God in all things, 
and observe all the articles of the creed; only they 
blaspheme the church of Rome, and hold it in con- 
tempt, and therein they are easily believed by the 
people. ^'^ A fair confession for a papist! So that 

* Inter omnes has sectas quae adhuc sunt, vel fuerunt, nou est 
perniciosior ecclesise quam Leonistarum ;. et hoc tribus de causis; 
prima est, quia est diuturnior, ahqui enim dicunt, quod duravit 
a tempore Sylvestri : aliqui a tempore apostolorum. Secunda, 
quia est generalior, fere enim nulla est terra, in qua haec secta 
non sit. Tertia, quia cum aliae omnes sectae immanitate blas- 
phemiarum in Deum, audientibus horrorem inducunt, haec mag- 
nam habet speciem pietatis, eo quod coram hominibus juste 
vivant. et bene omnia de Deo credant, et omnes articulos qui in 
syrabolo continentur, solum mode Romanam ecclesiani blasphe- 
mant et clerum, cui multitude laicoruni facilis est ad creden- 
dum. Rainer. Cont. haer. cap. 4. 


you see, they can tell if they will, where and when, 
and by whom, our doctrines were taught before 
Luther; but they use this question to beguile the 
ignorant people, "Where was your religion before 

And Jacobus, of Riberia, acknowledges that the 
Waldenses had continued a long time. " The first 
place,^^ says he, "they lived in was in Narbonne, 
in France, and in the diocese of Albie, Rhodes, 
Cahors, &c.; and at that time, there was little or no 
estimation of such as were called priests, bishops, 
and ministers of the church; for being very simple, 
and ignorant almost of all things, it was very easy 
for them, through the excellency of their learning 
and doctrine, to get to themselves the greatest credit 
among the people; and inasmuch as the Waldenses 
disputed more subtilely than all others, they were 
often admitted by the priests to teach openly, not 
that they approved their opinions, but because they 
were not comparable to them in wit. In so great 
honour was the sect of these men, that they were 
both exempted from all charges and impositions, 
and obtained more benefits by the wills and testa- 
ments of the dead, than the priests.'^ 

Rainerius says of them, " that they had translated 
the Old and New Testament into the vulgar tongue. 
They teach and learn it so well, that I have seen 
and heard a country clown recite Job word for word, 
and divers others that could perfectly repeat all the 
New Testament.'^ 


The doctrines that these Waldenses taught before 
Luther, are the same that the reformed churches 
now hold. 1. That only the Holy Scripture is to 
be believed in matters of salvation. 2. That all 
things are contained in Holy Scripture, necessary to 
salvation, and nothing to be admitted in religion, but 
what is commanded in the word of God. 3. That 
there is one only Mediator; other saints in no wise 
to be made mediators, or to be invoked. 4. That 
there is no purgatory. 5. That masses sung for the 
dead are wicked. -6. All traditions to be rejected, 
at least as necessary to salvation. 7. That differ- 
ences of meats, variety of degrees and orders of 
priests, friars, monks, and nuns, superfluous holy 
days, and pilgrimages, with all the rabblement of 
rites and ceremonies brought in by man, are to be 
abolished. 8. That the supremacy of the pope over 
all churches, and kings and emperors, is to be de- 
nied. 9. That the communion in both kinds is 
necessary to all people. 10. That the church of 
Rome is very Babylon, and the pope antichrist. 
11. That the pope's pardons and indulgences are to 
be rejected. 12. That the marriage of ministers is 
lawful, &c. Their doctrines are related by ^neas 
Sylvius, afterwards pope, not their best friend. But 
the English reader might find them in the Book of 
Martyrs.^ Luther began the reformation in the 
year 1517; these preached this doctrine before the 

" -^neas Sylvius, Bohemica Historia de Waldensium Dog- 
matibus. Fox, Acts and Mon. vol. 1. pag. 299, 300. 


year 1200; consequently our doctrine was before 

It would be endless to give an account of particu- 
lar doctors, who opposed the doctrine of the church 
of Rome, and maintained the doctrines we receive. 
I might mention Almaricus, a doctor of Paris, who 
suffered martyrdom for withstanding altars, images, 
invocation of saints, and transubstantiation. Also 
Everard,* an archbishop in Germany, in an assem- 
bly of bishops at Regensburg, gave his judgment 
of the bishop of Rome. "Hildebrand,^^ said he, 
" under colour of religion, laid the foundation of the 
kingdom of antichrist. These priests of Babylon 
will reign alone; they can bear no equal; they will 
never rest, till they have trampled all things under 
their feet, and sit in the temple of God, and be 
exalted above all that is worshipped. ' He who is 
the servant of servants/ covets to be Lord of lords, 
as if he were God; his brethren's counsels, yea, and 
the counsel of his Master, he despises. He speaks 
great things, as if he were God; in his breast he 
casts new devices, whereby to raise a kingdom to 
himself; he changes laws, and confirms his own; 
he defiles, plucks down, spoils, deceives, murders. 
Thus that child of perdition (whom they use to call 
antichrist), in whose forehead is written the name 
of blasphemy, I AM GOD, I cannot err, sits in the 
temple of God, and bears rule far and near." Was 

* Avcnt. lib. 7. p. 54G. 


this Luther, that speaks so like him against the 
pope? No; one born long before him, or else the 
papists would be ready to say. This doctor had 
learned this from Luther. 

The preachers in Sweden, publicly taught that 
the pope and his bishops were heretics. It would 
be too long to give account, how the pope was op- 
posed by Frederick II., and by John, king of Eng- 
land, a great while, though at last he delivered the 
kingdom of England and Ireland to the pope, and 
farmed them of him for a thousand marks per an- 
num; and afterward was poisoned by a monk. And 
though he made this resignation of these kingdoms 
for himself, and his heirs forever to the pope, yet 
his son and successor, Henry III., made great oppo- 
sition against it, as did the lords and nobles in his 
father's days, who have left a lamentation upon 
record of that fact, of king John.* 

But the history of the Waldenses now spread far 
and near, stands like a beacon on a hill, that all 
who do not shut their eyes, have clear light to see 

* FoXj Acts and Mon. vol. 1. Gulielmus Parisiensis circa Ann. 
Domini 1220, acerrime insectatur sacerdotes sui temporis, dicens, 
in eis nihil pietatis ac eruditionis comparere, sed potius diabo- 
licas turpitudines, omnium spurcitiarum ac vitiorum monstruosi- 
tatem ; coram peccata non simpliciter peccata esse, sed pecca- 
torum monstra terribilissima, eos non ecclesiam, sed Baby- 
lonem, j^gyptum ac Sodomam esse; praelatos non aedificare 
ecclesiam, sed destruere, ac Deo illudere; eos cum aliis sacer- 
dotibus prophanare ac polluere corpus Christi, &c. Lib. de 
Collatione Eeneficiorum. 


that our doctrines were taught, in abundance of 
places, before Luther, in Dauphiny, Languedoc, and 
Guienne, and in all those mountains which reach 
from the Alps to the Pyrenees. They had spread 
themselves into Germany, where were a great ma- 
ny of their preachers, who at the sound of a bell 
preached in a public place, "That the pope was a 
heretic, and his prelates seducers; that they had no 
power to bind and loose, or to interdict the use of sa- 
craments; and that though they had not come, God 
would have raised up others, even of the very 
stones, to enlighten the church by their preaching, 
rather than he would have suffered faith utterly to 
have perished." 

By this time they ordained preachers in Spain, 
who preached the same doctrine with them, and in 
Lombardy much multiplied. Yea, in one only val- 
ley, called Camonica, they had ten schools. Another 
says, that their little rivers streamed so far as to the 
kingdom of Sicily; and the only reason of their 
sufferings is said to be, because they withdrew the 
sheep from the keeping of St. Peter, and departed 
from the Roman church. 

From the year 1300 the bloody persecutions and 
the great sufferings of multitudes for the true doc- 
trine, and opposition to the church of Rome, prove 
what is sought after, unless they imprisoned and 
burnt so many, they know not for what. For Sa- 
tan (according to some) being bound at the end of 
the first ten persecutions, and remaining bound a 



thousand years, was now let loose again. Do they 
ask still, where was our doctrine before Luther? 
Why, where persecution was raised by papists be- 
fore Luther; for why were so many imprisoned, 
banished and burnt, if they did not look upon them 
as heretics ? and whom they so call is notoriously 
known. Was not Conradus Hager imprisoned for 
preaching against the mass? Were not Johannes 
de Castilone, and Franciscus de Arcatura, burnt, 
and Haybulus martyred, and Johannes de Rupe- 
scissa imprisoned for certain prophecies against the 
pope? Did not Militrius a Bohemian preach that 
Antichrist was come, and was he not excommuni- 
cated for the same ? Was not Occam excommuni- 
cated, and his books prohibited, because they dis- 
pleased the pope ? 

Brushius relates that six and thirty citizens of 
Maguntia were burned for following the doctrine of 
the Waldenses,* affirming the pope to be the great 
Antichrist. Also Massaeus records, that one hun- 
dred and forty in the province of Narbon, were put 
to the fire, for not receiving the decretals of Rome; 
besides them that suffered at Paris, to the number of 
twenty-four; and after them four hundred burned 
for heretics.t Was not Matthias Parisiensis before 
Luther, who wrote that the pope was x^ntichrist? 
And was there not an ancient writing, called the 

* Fox. Acts and Mon. vol. I. pag. 550. 
t Acts and Mon. vol. I. p. 521—532. 


^^ Prayer and Gomplaint of the Ploughman," contain- 
ing many things against the church of Rome? and Ni- 
colas Orem preached against them before the pope. 

Was not John Wicldiffe before Luther? and did 
not he maintain the doctrines that the reformed 
church now holds? and was there not a great com- 
pany of valiant defenders of the same truths? 
Twenty-five articles of Wickliffe you may read in 
the Book of Martyrs.* And may we not learn 
something by thet laws then made in England, that 
many here opposed the church of Rome; as Anno 
5. Rich. II. In the year 1380, we read of '^a great 
number of evil persons, going about from town to 
town, preaching to the people divers sermons con- 
taining heresy and notorious errors'^ (so papists 
call our doctrines) ''' to the blemishing of the holy 

And were there not many witnesses against po- 
pish doctrines and asserters of ours from the year 
1400? as John Badby, Nicolas Tayler, Richard 
Wagstaff, Michael Scrivener, William Smith, &c. 
John Huss, Jerome of Prague. But why do I men- 

* Acts and Mon. I. p. 568, 5G9. Yea 45 articles of Wicklifte 
were condemned in the council of Constance. Surius in Con- 
cil. torn. 3. p. 790. 

t Acts and Mon. Vol. I. beginning in the protestation to the 
church of England. Had the council of Constance so much 
ado with the articles of Huss and Jerome, who were charged 
with articles against the church of Rome, and condemned and 
burnt by the council, and yet do papists know none that taught 
our doctrine before Luther ? 


-tion particular names, when there were a great num- 
ber of faithful Bohemians not to be reckoned, and 
in many other places. The Bohemians in this age, 
near to Tabour castle, assembled themselves to- 
gether to the number of thirty thousand, and hav- 
ing three hundred tables erected in the fields for 
that purpose, they received the sacrament in both 

In the statute Anno 2. Hen. IV. in the year 1402, 
in England, theret were many preachers of true 
doctrine, which those times called " new doctrines 
and heretical, contrary to the faith and determina- 
tion of the holy church,'' [Rome forsooth.] It is 
recorded in the year 1422, that Henry Chichesly, 
Archbishop of Canterbury, wrote to pope Martin V. 
that there were so many in England infected with 
the heresy of Wickliffe and Huss, that without force 
of an army they could not be suppressed. 

Besides all these that have preached and owned 
our doctrine long ago, we might send such papists 
as ask, Where was your doctrine before Luther? to 
the churches in other parts of the world, as to the 
Greeks, the Muscovites, the Melchites or Syrians, 
the Armenians, the Jacobites, the Copts, or Egyp- 
tian Christians, the Abyssinians and others, who, 
though very corrupt in many things, yet agree with 
the reformed churches in many points, wherein they 

*" Cochleus, lib. 4. ex Berkbeck. Protestant. Evid. p. 386. 

t Acts and Mon. Vol. I. Protestat. to the church of England. 


with US differ from the church of Rome; as is wit- 
nessed by David Chytrseus, who travelled amongst 
many of them, and from his personal knowledge 
and conversing with many that were amongst them, 
and by letters from others, gives an account of the 
state of several churches: and by the confession of 
faith in the eastern churches, composed by Cryto- 
pulus, patriarch of Constantinople, and others, as 
also by the confession of papists themselves. 

1. These churches deny the pope's supremacy, 
that he is head of the church, and never submitted 
to him as universal head. Their words are, "It 
was never heard in the catholic church, that a mor- 
tal man, subject to a thousand sins, should be called 
the head of the church; but the head of the catholic 
church is Jesus Christ.^'* The Greeks account the 
pope and the Latins, as excommunicated persons, 
as Prateolus states. Of this opinion are the Mus- 
covites, the Armenians, &c. 

2. These churches agree with us in rejecting the 
apocryphal books from the number of canonical 

3. They give the sacrament in both kinds. They 
say, " Of necessity they must communicate in both 

* 'Oucfg yct^ yiKOVo-^n vrstpA ytaQoKtKtj iKKXna-ictj a.v^pct).nrov ^vyflov acti 
fAV^tditg ctjuafllctig ivo^ov KitpdiXyiv KiyiTScit t«? iKKX»(Ttct^^ &-C. Confes. 
fidei, Eccl. Orient, per Crytopulum, cap. 23. Item Dnvid Chy- 
troDus de statu Ecclesia3, pag. 21. Prateol. Elench. han'ct. lib. 
7. p. 202. Idem p. 228. 

t Confess, fidci Eccles. Orient, per Crytop, cap. 7. 
M 2 


kinds, SO that if any take it under one kind, al- 
though a layman, he sins, because he acts against 
Christ's command. All partake of both kinds, the 
bread and the cup, whether ecclesiastical, or lay- 
persons, men and women/'* 

4. They do not turn the sacrament into a sacri- 
fice, offered for the quick and dead. 

5. They have no private masses.t 

6. The doctrine of transubstantiation is not re- 
ceived amongst them. They confess a true and 
real presence in the Lord's supper, but such a one 
as faith oflfers, not such as the devised transubstan- 
tiation vainly teaches.J 

7. They admit not the seven popisli sacraments. 
They own properly but three, baptism, the Lord's 
supper, and penance.§ 

* Prateol. Elenc. Haeret. p. 202. MiJiX^va-t h ttavIs? Itcdli^nv 

ciAo-riKQi TS jtAt XAiKoti ctvcTps? KAi yvvAtui^. Confcs. fid. Eccles. 
Orient, cap. 9. 

t Ex liturgiis GrsBcorum et narrationibus hominum fide dig- 
norum constat, nee missas privatas absque communicantibus ab 
eis celebrari solere, nee ullam in eorum canone, sacrificii cor- 
poris et sanguinis Christi pro redemptione vivorum et mortuorum 
oblati, mentionem fieri, &c. David Chytr. de Statu Eccles. p. 14. 

t T«v dhii^n Kcti Cifiaictv Trti^ova-iAv tov Kv^tov vi/A.m Jyto-ov ^pi^ou 
ouoKoyou/Uiv^Kctt TTicTTivofAiv, TTXm m » 7rt<rrtg :n^iv''ri ncti Trpaa- 
pipit, ov)c «v « ipiv^ii^u<TA iiici] SiS'ao-icu /utilova-iaxrig^ &c. Cyril Patri- 
arch. Constant, cap. 17. p. 60. 

§ Confes. fidei Eccl. Orient per Crytop. cap. 5. wc uvai Tat Trg^c 


8. They admit ministers^ marriage.* 

9. They deny purgatory. It is true the Greek 
church do believe that there is a place distinct from 
heaven and hell, where some departed souls are 
lodged for a w^hile. Their opinion is, that those 
w^ho lived holily, and died in the Lord, go imme- 
diately to heaven, and the wicked who die without 
repentance go presently to hell; but such as are con- 
verted at the end of their life are in another place, 
in a middle condition, and for these they pray, but 
yet they do not call this purgatory. So Chytraeus. 
And in their confession they utterly deny popish 
purgatory; for they affirm the punishment of such 
departed souls as are neither in heaven nor in hell, 
"is not material, neither by fire, nor by any other 
matter, but only from the affliction and anguish of 
their own consciences, remembering then what they 
did amiss, while they were in this world. ^'t How- 
ever far they are from the truth, yet they are far 
also from purgatorial fire. For Alphonsus says, 
" That it is one of the most known errors of the 

* Confes. fidei Eccles. Orient, c. 11. et David Chytroeus de 
Stat. Eccl. p. 14. 

t AiyU TOIVVV « iK}CK>1(ridL ryiV iKUVCOV TTOIVHV /UM V\tX,yiV f/V3t/, f/r' OVY 

ndil etvtct; rug atto <TvviiS)i7im (rvfjL^diivova-aLV rovlotgix, rov /utjuvyia-KiT^Ai 
rav cxTA h too Kocrfji.oo /un kata hoyov jutiSi Icriai tvpA^Av. Confess, 
eadem cap. 20. Unus ex notissimis erroribus Gra?coruin et 
Armenorum est, quo docent nullum esse purgatoriuni locum, 
&c. Alphons. Adver. Ha3res. lib. 12. p. 188. 


Greeks and Armenians, that thev teach no place of 
purgatory/^ &c. 

10. Though the Greeks dote too much upon 
images of saints, yet they differ much from papists 
in this point; for they are against making any 
image of God, which the papists do in the likeness 
of an old man; and to other images they give (r/ft^jv) 
honour, but neither the v^orship of Latria, nor 
Dulia. They say " God forbid, for these are only 
to be given to God.'^* 

11. They carry not the sacrament in procession 
about the streets, as the papists do to be worshipped 
by them that meet it, except they send it to the 
sick; for, say they, "it was not given to be carried 
about the streets, but religiously to be received for 
the remission of sins, according to the w^ord of 

12. They hold the perfection and sufficiency of 
the Scripture; that it is sacrilege to add any thing 
to it, or take away from it, and they contradict those 
that do.J 

* Ov yag Biuic rov dTTipiygdiTrl ov Biov Tnpiyga.'Trl n ilx.ovt TTdLpitKa^uv. 
Ais ayicttgilKO^JtKAiTi/unv Tijv '^po^nitcvo'SLV dTTiVit/uojUiv: ov KctT^iVrtJChV « 
S'ovKix.nv, ctTTdiyi, autai yag 6sa) ^ova vrpoa-iiKOva-iv. Confess, fid. Eccl. 
Orient, per Crytop. cap. 15. 

t Ou TTipi^ipo/uiv Si TOVTQ <T0 ayiov fAVO-fTupiov SidL Tm Trhetjituv^ dx\ M 
fxovov oTijv KO/ui^ijai it; otKOV voa-ovvlog, on ov SiS^oIai y\[A.iv tovIo lyct Tnpi- 
(piptflctt hct Tav Trxctliim^ dw' ivat ivxct^co; /uijix^l^i it; a.^iTtv, jcata ta 
ho-TToltKdi pi^fActloi. Confess, fid. Eccl. Orient, per eundem cap. 9. 

+ 'Ht/c ayia. ^git<:})« hiTrtTTiud-n iKKKHT-tA Ctto ^-iov, ov^ ottod; ctCln 
fAithv TrgOfT] toiler d^ i) d^atgovtrAiKit^iy {rovlo yap AvliKpvgligoa-vhKi) aKKo. 


13. Concerning the marks of the true catholic 
and apostolical church, they greatly differ from the 
church of Rome; the confession mentions four, and 
the last they lay most stress upon, wherein they 
teach the same with us, namely, " that it faithfully 
and sincerely keep the word of God, which God 
has given to us by his prophets and apostles.^^* 

14. They do not define the catholic church as the 
Romanists do, by making it essential to submit to 
any one man as the head of the whole; but the 
whole company of such as are sound in the doctrine 
of Christ, every where dispersed, but knit together 
by the bond of the Spirit, is the catholic church. — 
Confess, eadem cap. 7. 

By all this the reader may see the harsh and un- 
charitable spirit of the Romanists, who unchurch all 
those, who profess that they keep to all the doctrines 
of the first general councils,! in which essential 
doctrines were ratified, as appears by their creeds, 

KAt Toy? rotovrov t/ Tox/umlctg, Ixry^^i H,at KdCJcKpctu^A. Confess, fid. 
Eccl. Orient, cap. 7. 

* TiTApov KdLi a-it<^B<r<Tct]ov iKKXMTtac yvuifta-fxa.^ to tt/o-tcd? kai aS'o- 

KOeC TTAfAKATi^m TO Qg/OV />«^0t SgO? i^i^iTO SlA TT^O^WTaV KAt ATTOa"' 

fTOKcov. Confess, fid. Eccl. Orient, cap. 7. 

t 'E^Tat yAf) KAt /UOVAg OtKQU/UiVlKAg ^UVoSoVC i)[AU(; ATToSiy^Oy.l^A. 
KAt Oa-al aI OlKOVjUi^/lKAl 'ittIa icffifatVTO Tf KAl iCij^'ilOOITA]) ConlCSSiO 

eadem. cap. 15. Acta septom Synodorum Graecarum, Scripta 
Basilii, Chrysostomi, Damasceni, eorumque traditiones tanquam 
divina oracula aniplectuntur, ad caque do fide et roliirione ipso- 
ruin sciscitantes rernittunt, ex Uteris Constantin. ad Dav. Chytr. 
de statu Eccles. p. 7J. 


containing the articles of the Christian faith; but 
the Muscovites condemn and curse the Romans as 
forsaking the primitive church, and breaking the 
seven general synods. He may also see their im- 
pudence in asking, Where our church and doctrines 
were before Luther? when there have been so many 
churches, ever since the apostles' times, that have, 
though not without many corruptions in many 
things, yet held to the essential doctrines of the 
Christian religion, and have not received these doc- 
trines of the church of Rome, which is but a little 
church in comparison of all the rest, amongst whom 
our religion was before Luther. 



Having shown that the doctrines of the reformed 
churches are the same that were taught by Christ 
and his apostles, and that by many after them long 
before Luther; the next thing is to demonstrate that 
popery is a novelty. This follows, indeed, by just 
and good consequence from what has hitherto been 
said. For two doctrines, which are so contrary, 
yea, so contradictory, cannot both be true, and 
equally old; for truth must be before error. But 
yet, to prove that popery, as now framed, had not 
its being till many hundred years after Christ, I 
shall pick out some of the most material points of 
popery, (and if these fall the others cannot stand) 
and give an account of the time when they first 
came in. The rest, whose rise is more uncertain, 
though clear enough that they were not from the 
beginning, nor long, long after, will not need such 
large insisting on; and yet in all, I must study bre- 
vity, which is a task that lies upon me, and pinches 
me hard all along in so copious a subject as this 
position is. 

First, I shall begin at the head — the supremacy 
of the pope — which is indeed the head and heart of 
popery. Though by reason of age, gray hairs are 
upon it, yet in comparison of true antiquity, it will 
appear that their head is both raw and green; and 


if the head be young, the whole body cannot be 
old. The witnesses to give in their testimony of 
the minority of the pope, as head of the church, as 
now claimed, are at hand, even six several councils, 
which have so polled his head, and dipt his beard, 
that he looks very young, and bears his age marvel- 
lously well; for look upon him in the glass of true 
history, and no man will believe that he is so old as 
he brags to be. 

My first catalogue of witnesses consists of three 
hundred and eighteen grave ancient fathers, assem- 
bled in the first general council, that ever was since 
the apostles' times, at Nice, in the year of our Lord 
325. In reading over the canons of this council, I 
fix upon two, which are fully and directly against 
the pope's universal sovereignty and dominion over 
all churches; the one is against excommunicated 
persons appealing, in any diocese, to remote church- 
es; or being harboured or received by them, in these 
words: — 

" Concerning persons excommunicated, whether 
they be of the clergy or the laity, let this sentence 
be observed by the bishops of every province, ac- 
cording to the canon, which saith, that those who 
are cast out by some, shall not be admitted by 
others.^^* This canon clips the power of the pope, 

KAtKoo rityjuitli TintyfxivcAV ) vtnro tccv nct^* iKsia-Tnv iTraift^iitv iTTia-KOTrav 
Kpitjiira) » yvcc/um katx tov xatvovst tov S'tctyo^ivovra.^ Tcy? v(p^ iT^pm 
v'Tro&Kii^ivlx;, v^' itifoov (xi) Trgo^tiy^eLi. Codex Can Eccles. Uni- 
vers. Can. 5. 


and takes away his jurisdiction over other churches; 
and was plainly so understood of old, because when 
some were excommunicated in Africa, and ran to, 
and were entertained by the bishop of Rome, the 
council in Africa held it irregular, and wrote to the 
pope so too, and alleged this canon of the council 
of Nice, that he ought not to admit those whom 
they had excommunicated; of which more when I 
come to that council. 

The other canon in this council runs: "Let the 
ancient customs continue in force, which are in 
Egypt, Libya, and Pentapolis, that the bishop of 
Alexandria have the government of all these; be- 
cause also the bishop in Rome has the same custom. 
Likewise also in Antioch, and in other provinces, 
let the churches preserve their privileges.^'* From 
thus much of this canon, we easily learn: 1. That 
the bishop of Rome had not universal jurisdiction 
over all the churches; because the bishop of Alex- 
andria was to have the same power, [e^avG-teev, autho- 
rity] over those parts; and the bishop of Antioch, 
in those parts; and others, in other provinces, as the 
bishop of Rome had in those parts; which could 
not be, if the bishop of Rome were universal, and 
they provincial underlings; for there is not like 

* Tat ei^^SttCl id-if KfiCtJUTO), TOt iV AiyUTTTO) KOLt AlCvH Kitl niVTOLTTOXU, 

iTTilSt) KCtt TOO iV Tit VcOfAM iTnO-KOTTU) TQVTO ffVVh^t^ f CTT/V' OfXOlCCi; cTf K 3LI 
KAra. THV' AvTtO^UCtVj KAt h TOt/? a\Aat/C ITTAp^tOitg <TA TTfljQuA O-Ot^tC^Ul 

Ttfif tKKKiia-tAtg. Codex Can. Eccles. Univers. Can. G. 



power, authority, or equality in a universal and a 
provincial bishop, according to their own doctrine. 
2, We as easily see, that what power the pope had, 
is not by this council bottomed upon, and derived 
from the Holy Scriptures, or succession from Peter, 
but grounded only upon custom. Not a word is 
here, of any divine right to that power or place in 
which he then was, which was far inferior to what 
he claims and usurps now. For the first three hun- 
dred years, then, a universal head had not risen, nor 
was acknowledged in the church of God. 

Secondly. The next catalogue of witnesses against 
the universal sovereignty of the bishop of Rome, 
has in it one hundred and fifty fathers, assembled at 
Constantinople, (which Caranza* says, is one of the 
four principal councils, and next after the council of 
Nice, whose authority is already alleged,) about the 
year 383. These, in their first canon, ratified and 
confirmed what was done in the Nicene council, 
and would have it to be observed without violation. 
Moreover, they decreed, " That no bishop of any 
diocese should go to any churches beyond their own 
bounds, to meddle with them, nor confound or min- 
gle churches; but, according to the canons, the 
bishop of Alexandria should govern what belongs 
to Egypt; and the bishops of the East only the East, 
reserving the privileges by the canons of the coun- 
cil of Nice, to the church of Antioch; and the 

^ Caranza, p. 200. 


bishops of the Asian diocese, should govern the 
Asian diocese only; and the bishops of the diocese 
of Pontus, what appertains to that diocese only; 
and so the bishops of Thrace, should in Thrace. 
And that no bishop of any diocese should go, except 
he be called to ordination, or any other church dis- 
pensations. This canon, above written, concerning 
dioceses, being kept, it is manifest that those things 
which appertain to each province, should be ordered 
by the synod of that province, [if they had said, hy 
the bishop of Rome^ the universal head^ it would 
have made the papists' hearts to leap within them, 
and made his holiness smile; but, alas! they carried 
it quite another way, by the synod of the province^ 
according to the determinations of the Nicene coun- 
cil/'* And in the next canon they decreed, "That 
the bishop of Constantinople, forasmuch as it is new 
Rome, should have the badges of honour next to the 
bishop of Rome.'^t From this general council, we 

* Touc v7n^ J'totKna-tv iTriTKOTrouc "Vdm uTTi^optcttg iKJcKna-iatg //« sTr/evot/, 
fxnh crvy^iiiv taq iKKKno-tagj dhXct Kct^ct rcvc Kctvovjg rov juiv AKi>atv- 
Spun; iTTia-KOTTov Tdi \v hiyvTrjod /uovov oikovo/uuv ; tov; Si t«? stv^TOXxc 

g^/iTiCOTrcy?, TWV OtVatTO.MV /AOVOV SlOlKitV, (^UKct'TlojUiVOCV TCDV iV TOtQ K(XMC7t 
TOl; KCtrcL NtiCcttnV TT^iyQiim T« Kv'XlO'^^im iKtChil^i!*, KCtt TtfC T«C 

Acr/stv»? SiotKna-iO); i7rta-)c07rovQ th )cctTct t«v ' A<rtAVHV /uovov Qt}covo/uiiv, 

i&C. ^UKcfrJofAiVOU Si TOU 7rf)0yiypU.f/.fXiV0V TTZpl fXCOV SlOtKi1<ria)V KAVOVOC: 
ivSuKOV UC T* Jt0t<9-' iKoLCrriV iTrap^lctV « T«C iTTctp^lOii; auVoSo; SlOlKMO-il 

KctTct ret ^udLioL d^tcr/xivA. Ibid. Can. ]G5. sed Concilii lib. Can. 2. 

t Tov fAiVTOt Kccva-ruvTivovTroKioe; iTnytcoTrov iX,*tv ret 7r^i<r^ii± txc 

T/yUDC fXiTdi TOV T«C PoOfAMQ iTTlO-KOTTOVj Slct TO UVAl Oiul>lV Vi^V VoU/UilV . 

Ibid. Can. 1G6. aliter Can. 3. 


learn: 1. That they vote against any one being 
universal head: because. 2. Every bishop was to 
govern in his own diocese, and no otlier was to 
meddle, except desired, with any ecclesiastical mat- 
ters in another's province. 3. That the bishop of 
Constantinople is made equal with the bishop of 
Rome, save that his worship I should have said 
lordship, but that they will not think high enough: 
but I cannot help it. these two councils forbid me to 
say head. s/,::.ld sit in the first place, or before the 
other, which yet he :r.:^";.: have done, without uni- 
versal jurisdiction. 4. We learn that the honour 
which either of then: had. was not bottomed upon 
divine r : g : ; z : s - : ey were bishops in the 

i:::::e:::- ::::es. Bar here is not a word, "Thou art 
Peter." "Peter's s:. ::e5?:r." "apostolical seat'' 
All this is very g:: :: ev :r:.ce that the pope is not 
so old as to reach to the times of this council either. 
Thirdly. The nex*: : : : ^ r of witnesses, that as 
yet the bishop of Rome was .. : : ^^^e--:^! head, con- 
sists of two hundred fathers, assr t in a general 
council ar Epnesus. in the year 4.31: or as others. 
434. :5, This co'incil is so full, that I 

wo.; :ij'.'- :- - --[—i, so n:::o^' ^^f ':hem as have 

set forth so :\\: \ o-s :. :: .. _ r. could with 

patience write what so much made against them, 
and yet so on in their errc rnging headship 

from the apostles' times. T/.r . jh declares the 
occasion of its constitution, in th:- .r.:.:::er: ••' Regi- 
nus. our fellow bishop, and beloved of God. together 


with the holy bishops of the province of Cyprus, 
Zenon and Evagrius, have declared to us a new 
thing, contrary to ecclesiastical laws, and canons of 
the holy fathers, and that which concerns the liberty 
of all; wherefore, since common diseases need the 
greater medicine, for as much as they do the more 
harm, the ancient custom not being followed,'^ to 
wit, this new thing was, "that the bishop of 
Antioch had ordained some in Cyprus, as some 
eminent for religion coming to the holy synod 
have both by writing and by their own words in- 
formed,^' wherefore it is decreed "that the presi- 
dents of the holy churches in Cyprus shall have 
this, without detriment and violation of their right, 
according to the canons of the holy fathers, and the 
ancient custom, themselves to ordain godly bishops; 
and this also shall be observed in other dioceses and 
provinces every where, that no bishop draw under 
his subjection any other province, which was not 
his from the beginning, or his predecessor's; and if 
any bishop has made such invasion, and by violence 
made it subject to him, he shall again restore it; 
that the canons of the fathers be not transgressed; 
lest under pretence of priesthood, the arrogance of 
worldly power creep in unawares, and we insensi- 
bly and by little and little lose that liberty which 
Jesus Christ our Lord, the Redeemer of mankind, 
has purchased for us with his own blood, and given 
freely to us. It seems good therefore to this holy 
and general synod, that the rights which they have 

N 2 


had from the beginning be secured to every pro- 
vince, pure and inviolable, according to the ancient 
custom; every metropolitan having liberty to take 
a copy of the acts for his own security. And if any 
one shall take a copy contrary in any thing to what 
is now determined, it pleased all the holy and uni- 
versal synod that it should be void.'^* Thus far this 
general council unanimously voted against one bi- 
shop's meddling with or encroaching upon the pro- 
vinces of others; calling it a new thing, Sac, How 
then was one bishop owned as head over all the 

Fourthly. Another catalogue of six hundred and 
thirty, according to Caranza, assembled in a general 
council at Chalcedon in the year 451. In their first 
canon they ratify and confirm all the canons of the 
former councils, so that by the vote of these, they, 
to this year, are against the primacy and sovereignty 


etytav KAtvorojuov/Aivov iott Tug TruvTOiv sAsySsp/st? dTrro/uavov Trgotrny' 
yu\f, &c. 'n(7T€ TQv iTTta-KOTov Tyic 'AvT^o;^ga)V Trohiag^ to.? gy KvTrpa 
'^oiiKT^ai ^itporcvtugj &c. *E^ova-i <ro a.viTnipisia-'Tov jcai aQiao-tov gi tuv 
etytocv iKKKno-icev kata Ttjv KuTrpov Tr^ciTTCoTi; hata rove kavovaq Tm 

OtTtaaV TTATipm tCAl T«V Ap^AtAV (TWH^il'JiV , cT/ \av'TV)V TAg ^StgOTOVlAC TOUf 
O-gaV HAt TCDV aTTAvlA^OV iTTApy^tm 7rApA(pvKA^^)i(riTAl, Jt^TTg fXYiSiyA Tm 
^-iO (ptXiT-T At m iTTtO-KOTrCOV iTTAp^lAV InpAV OVK OViTAV AVOO^iV KAl i^^PX^^ 
C^O T«V aVTOU, HyCVV rm <t*rpO dvTOV %8^/»S*; KaIaKA/xCavUVj U^k' il KAi 
TIC KATihAdv iC'Jit U<|)' iAVTUt TTiTrOlHTAl ^lAO-AfXiVOQ T'.vJoV ATTcS^lS'oVAt, lyA 

/un rm (UTctlipm ot }cAvon; TTApACAivcevTAt, /jii)Si h UpcvpyiAg Trpcarx^fxATi^ 
l^ovo-iAc Koo-fAiKng Tv<^oc TTApu^JvuTAt, &c. Codex. Call. Eccles. 
Univers. Can. 178. aliter Concil. Ephes. Can. 8. 


of any one bishop. In another canon they deter- 
mined, "That if any clergyman had any difference 
with his own, or another bishop, it should be tried 
by the synod of the province; but if there were any 
controversy betwixt a bishop, or clergyman, and 
the metropolitan of the province, he or they should 
go to the diocesan or to the seat of the royal city of 
Constantinople, and there have it tried/^* So then 
appeals to Rome hereby are cut off; and the same 
is ratified again in another canon of the same coun- 
cil. Again, they decreed, " That the church of Con- 
stantinople should have equal privileges with Rome 
that as the fathers before them had given the pri- 
vilege to elder Rome, because it had the empire, 
so being moved by the same reason they gave 
the same privileges to Constantinople, new Rome, 
thinking it reason that the city v/hich is honoured 
with the empire and senate, should be alike ad- 
vanced with old Rome, in all ecclesiastical mat- 
ters."! From whence it plainly follows: 1. That 
what privilege or precedency was given to Rome, 

iTTlTiCOtZffOV (UrctadL T« (TVVoSoc T«5 \iWcLf>'^ldL^ S^HCA^i^rBcD '. il Si tV^O^ TOV T»? 

>,st/utCctvirrD, n TOV V^^'jp^ov Tii; SioiKytTiocg, n rov Tug (^J-o-iKtvova-ng Kov- 
(TT'Avjivcv^o}\ta>g -9-^ovov, itcti W avToc SiKct^ia^a>. Codex. Can. Eccles. 
Univers. Can. 187. item Can. 195. 

t TdL la-dL 9rpi<r/iuct uTriVit/uctv to) t«? Vfi*? Poi/uhq ayiaroiTa^ 3-pova> ivKo- 
yceg KpivQvliC TUQ ^'X(Ti\ii^q Kctt nruv iaocv aTroxauovT^v Trpi^rCiia^v th Trpta-- 
Qunpt ^t(xiKiSi VocfjLi)^ }coii iv TOtg iKKhnTt^ta-TtKotg ^c iKUV}iv ^iyaXvytc^xt 
TT^diyfAcLdi^ &c. Codex can. Eccles. Univers. Can. 200. 


was not by reason of Peter's supposed chair, but be- 
cause it was honoured with empire; so that in the 
judgment of the ancients the pope had no divine 
right. 2. That the bishop of Constantinople was 
equal with the bishop of Rome in all things, as also 
were the metropolitans of the Asian, and Thracian 
dioceses, and of Pontus. Then at this time he was 
not yet universal bishop. 

Fifthly. Another evidence in this cause is the 
council held at Antioch in the year 341, the occa- 
sion whereof was this. In the time of Julius I.* 
Bishop of Rome, in the Eastern church, several 
bishops were deposed for divers causes by their 
synods; which bishops went to Rome, and ac- 
quainted Julius with their whole estate and trouble. 
Julius writes to the bishops of the East, telling 
them, ^' They had done very ill to determine and 
conclude any thing against those bishops without 
his privity.^' When they received this, they took 
the correction of Julius for a contumely, or slander, 
and summoned a council at Antioch. There as 
soon as they had assembled together, they drew up 
an epistle by uniform consent of them all, wherein 
they bitterly inveigh against Julius, and signify 
withal, " That if any were banished the church and 
excommunicated by their decree and censure, it 
was not his part to intermeddle, nor to sit in judg- 

* Euseb. Eccles. Hist. lib. 7. cap. 23, &c. et 36. Socrat. lib. 
2. cap. 11. 


ment upon their sentence/^ And then decreed, 
"That if any bishop should be accused, and the 
matter could not be determined by the bishops of 
the province, some pronouncing the accused to be 
innocent, others to be guilty, for the taking up of 
the whole controversy, the metropolitan should call 
others to judge from the neighbouring province, 
and what should be so determined should stand 
firm.'^* And in the next canon, they ratified, 
"That if any bishop was accused, and condemned 
by all the bishops of the province, and all should 
with one consent pronounce sentence against him; 
he should no more be tried by any other. But the 
sentence of the bishops of the province should be 
to all purposes valid. '^ Clearly do they take away 
all appeals to Rome, as the matter of the canons, 
and the occasion of making them fully demonstrate. 
And this council was confirmed in the sixth gene- 

*" 'E/ T/C iTTta-KOTrog iTTl TKTIV iyHXH JUCt(n X-plVOlTOy iTrUTct avfxCaii) enri^t 
dvTQU S'lai<^aiVitV TOUC iV Tit iTTOLp^t^ iTriTKOTOU?^ TODV /U(V uBcDOV TOV }tptVO' 
/ULiVOV aTTQCpatVOVTiuV', TCDV cTg iVO^OV, V^i^ ulTT AKKctyhQ TTCtO-i)^ u^<^/3-C»T«<r«a>C 

i^o^i TM ayicL (TVvoSoe tov tmc /unr^oTroKioog iTrta-KoTroVfUTTo TWf TrXMcrto^eo- 
gov iTTctp^tsig /uiritH.A7,it(r3-ctt iTipcvg Tl\dig touc iTTiKpivcvflM, }CUt T»V ci^- 
<pt(7-Ciiri)crtv Ji'-iKvovTAC rou ^itxiaxr'Jii irvv TOtg t«c i7r:t^^tctQ to TTctpt- 
a-TAfjLivov. Codex Can. Eccles. Univers. Can. 93. *E; t/c l-wia-ico' 
tztroq itzsrt Ticriv lyKKM/uci^i KXTMyopn^itg, icpi^it» u^o 7rA\]a>v tcov «v t» 
\7rcL^')^iA iTTKnconrcoVi (WAvlii Ti(Tviu(pa>vci fxtctv K'JlT avTcy i^iviyxoiiv -^yi^oyf 

TOuloV /mHiCiTt TB-di^ iTtpOlg JlKX^iO-^Cll, CtXKA /UiVUV CiC^l^lV TUV (TUfXipocfOY 

Toov iTTl T«? iTTctpyixg iTTivKO'aroov afWQ<psta-tv. Codcx Can. hiCcles. 
Univers. Can. 94. apud Caranz. et Surium, Concil. Antiochen. 
Can. 14, 15. 


ral Constantinopolitan synod held in Trul, and by- 
pope Dionysius, and so has the authority of a gene- 
ral council and pope too: therefore, with the pa- 
pists themselves, should be authentic. Caranz. 
Sum. Concil. p. 165. Euseb. lib. 7. cap. 24, et 25. 
Surius Concil. tom. I. pag. 399. 

Sixthly. Another full evidence that the bishop 
of Rome was not owned as universal head, is the 
stout opposition made against it (in his early aspi- 
ring after it), by two hundred and seventeen fathers 
assembled, Augustine being one, and Aurelius pre- 
sident, in the year 419. The controversy then was 
this: Apiarius, a priest in Africa, was, for his scan- 
dalous life, excommunicated, in an African synod. 
Hereupon he fled to the bishop of Rome, who ab- 
solved him, and commanded him to be restored to 
his place; and Zosimus, bishop of Rome, to justify 
this, claimed a right to receive appeals from all parts 
of the world; and for proof thereof, pretended a 
certain canon of the Nicene council, that gave it 
him. The council, not finding any such canon in 
the decrees of the fathers at Nice, sent away letters 
and messengers to the bishops of Constantinople, 
Alexandria, and Antioch, requesting them to send 
them the acts of the Nicene council, fast closed and 
sealed up, because they could not find a canon which 
was alleged by the legates of the bishop of Rome. 
From these they received several copies, all agree- 
ing, but in none of them was found what Zosimus 
had affirmed to be in them; so that he was shame- 


fully, by all the council, convinced of forgery ; for 
the copies taken out of the originals by Cyril of 
Alexandria, and by Atticus of Constantinople, &c. 
had no such thing in them. Accordingly, the whole 
council writing to Boniface I., his successor, (in 
which letter they call Zosimus " a man of unhappy 
memory,") desired him " to repel those that made 
him [the bishop of Rome] their refuge, both be- 
cause there is no such constitution of the fathers, 
which so much derogated from the authority of the 
African church, as also because the Nicene council 
had evidently left the ordering of all inferiors to the 
judgment of their metropolitan, and had determined 
that all matters of controversy should receive their 
final decision in the place where they began. For 
how can a judgment given beyond the seas be good, 
where witnesses necessarily required in such cases, 
cannot be present, either on account of their sex, 
or age, or some other impediment? Because it is 
granted to every one to appeal to the councils of 
their own provinces, or to a universal council. 
Unless there should be any one that can think that 
our God can inspire a justice of trial into any one 
man, and deny it to innumerable priests that are 
assembled in council.'' These letters of the council 
to Boniface, of Cyril of Alexandria to the council, 
and of Atticus of Constantinople to the same, and 
the copies of the Nicene council sent to them, and 
the epistle of the council to pope Cclestine, are in 
the end of Codex Canon. Ecclcs. African, and in 


Surius, torn. 1. p. 588, &c. Thus much for their 
letters; now for the canons of the African church 
against the headship of the bishop of Rome. In the 
19th Canon: " If any bishop be accused, the accuser 
should bring his cause before the primate of the 
province/' Can. 23. "That no bishop should go 
beyond the sea, unless he had the consent of the 
bishop of the first seat of every province.^' Can. 
28. "That if presbyters,* deacons, and others, have 
complaint against their bishops, the neighbouring 
bishops should hear them; and if they would appeal 
from them, it should not be to the judgments of any 
beyond the sea, but to the primates of their own 
provinces, or to a general council, as was decreed 
before concerning bishops. As for those that shall 
appeal beyond the sea, none shall receive them into 
communion in Africa.'^ So also Canon 125. 

So far, we see that the church of God curbed and 
restrained the ambition of the bishop of Rome, and 
stoutly stood against the endeavours of aspiring an- 
tichrist. Yet will I add one more; and that is of a 

^anpot KKifpiKot, \v ctU i^cea-iv ctlrtcttg, sav ta SiKAo-Tupist ju6JU<pa>vlsttfTav 
iS'iuv iTTia-KG'nruv, oi ywrovis iTrio-KOforQi d}tpoa.^mlAt dvjaf: kcU jULiret 
awdLt^i^ico^ <rov IS'iov iTria-x.O'Zirov, ta /u{]sl^v Lvtoov Stct^ioexTiy oi tarpoo" 
KAKcv/uivoi Si dvlm iTrto-ito^ot, Sio e/ ycdit Tnpi dvlcev iKKXtfJov ^uretgi^uv 
vo[J(.i(TU>a-tVj /uii ikkaMtcovIai g/c Tst fttipdiv Tuc ^AKACTTitg Succta'Tupta^ dwd 

lir^OC TCV? 'W^OclvjOvldL^ TO/V ISlOiV liTtTCt^^taV', wf ICAl TTipl TCDV iTtCKOiWOeV 

faroKKdiKig tjptvTcti' ol (Te tt^o? Trip^fxAltx-A SuAo-rnptA (T/sxxitAoi/yuevo/, ^upA 
ovSivo^ h Til 'A^piKu Si^^axriv it; KoiymtAy. Codex Can. Eccles. 
African. Can. 28. 


council at Constantinople, in the time of Agatho, 
bishop of Rome, which was about the year 673, or 
as others, 681, who smartly snubbed the pretended 
mother, that is to give laws to all others, by making 
a law to extend to, and to bind the church of 
Rome, saying: '^Forasmuch as we understand that 
in the city of Rome, in time of Lent, they fast upon 
the Sabbath days, contrary to the custom of the 
church, it is decreed in this synod, that also in the 
church of Rome, that canon shall be of force with- 
out violation, which saith, if any of the clergy shall 
be found fasting on the Lord^s day, or Sabbath, ex- 
cept only one, let him be deposed; but if any one of 
the laity, let him be excommunicated.'^* This the 
church of Rome, in the height of her pride, would 
hardly brook; but you see, up to this time, many 
councils knew no such thing as a universal head, 
but opposed the first appearance of it. 

To these evidences, from councils, I shall add 
further the expressed judgment of two of their own 
bishops, predecessors of him, who first got the title 
of universal head, viz: Pelagius and Gregory the 
Great, who exceedingly inveighed against this title; 

^ Quoniam intelleximus in Romanorum civitate, in Sanctis 
quadragesimsD jejuniis, in ejus Sabbatis jejunare prcBler ecclesi- 
asticam consuetudinem traditam ; sanctsB synodo visum est, ut 
in Romanorum quoque ecclesia inconcusse vires habeat canon 
qui dicit: Si quis clericus inventus fuerit in sancto Dominico vel 
Sabbatho jejunans propter unum et solum, deponatur, sin autcm 
laicus, segregetur. Surius in Concil : torn. 2. p. 1048. Con- 
cil. VI. Constant. Can. 55. refer autem ad Canon. Apostol. GCi. 



God in his providence so ordering it, that the fol- 
lowing popes might be condemned out of the 
mouths of their predecessors. Their sharpness of 
speech against this usurpation, was occasioned by- 
John bishop of Constantinople, surnamed the Faster, 
who assumed to himself the title of universal bishop 
about the year 580; about which time Pelagius II. 
being bishop of Rome, wrote to all the bishops as- 
sembled at Constantinople in a synod called by John 
the bishop of that seat, saying, " That they ought 
not to acknowledge John as universal bishop, unless 
they purposed to depart away from the communion 
of all other bishops:'^ moreover, saying, "Let no 
patriarch use such a title, for if the chief patriarch 
should be called universal, the name of a patriarch 
would be taken away thereby from all others; but 
God forbid it should ever enter into the heart of a 
Christian to assume any thing to himself, whereby 
the honour of his brethren should be debased. For 
this cause I, in my epistles, never call any by that 
name, for fear that by giving him more than is 
his due, I might seem to take away that which of 
right belongs to him. For the devil our adversary 
goeth about like a roaring lion, exercising his rage 
upon the humble and meek-hearted, and seeking to 
devour now, not the sheep-cotes, but the very prin- 
cipal members of the church. For he [John] comes 
near to him of whom it is written, ^This is he 
which is king over all the children of pride:' which 
words I speak with grief of mind, seeing our bro- 


ther and fellow bishop John, in despite [mark his 
reasons against this head,] of the commandment of 
our Saviour, the precepts of the apostles, and canons 
of the church, by this haughty name, makes him- 
self his [antichrist's] forerunner, and hereby goes 
about [mark reader,] to attribute to himself all 
those things which belong properly to the head 
himself, that is, Christ; and by the usurpation of 
this pompous title, to bring under his subjection all 
the members of Christ.'^ And he warns them to 
beware, lest this temptation of Satan prevail over 
them, and that they neither give nor take this title 
of universal bishop.* 

This is a large testimony against, and a full con- 
demnation of both name and office of universal 
bishop, and this by a bishop of Rome, before his 
successor had usurped the same. And I might 
infer, either that the following bishops of Rome 
greatly err in taking to themselves this name and 
office, or else this bishop of Rome was fallible and 
erred in a matter of faith, made now by them ne- 
cessary to salvation. Let them choose which alter- 
native they will, for one they must; their principles 
are wounded by it. 

* Nullus patriarcharum universalitatis vocabulo unqiiam uta- 
tur, quia si unus patriarcha universalis dicitur, patriarcluirum 
nomen coeteris derogatur ; sed absit lioc, absit a fidelis ciijus- 
quam mente, hoc sibi vel velle queinpiaiu arripcre, unde liono- 
rem fratrurn suoruni imminuere ex quantulacunque parte vi- 
deatur, <Slc. Jus. Can. Dist. DD. Nullus Patriarcharum, Glos. 


After this Pelagius (for the usurper was not im- 
mediately after him,) succeeded Gregory, called the 
Great, about the year 590, at which time John IV. 
of Constantinople, still persisted in claiming and 
maintaining his title of universal bishop; at which 
Gregory being much grieved and offended, writes 
to Constantia the empress against it; saying, " far be 
it that your time should be defiled by the exaltation 
of one man,'^ which he speaks of as " an insufferable 
thing; and that by this arrogancy and pride is por- 
tended that the time of antichrist is now at hand; 
and that John imitated him, [Lucifer] who making 
light of that happiness which he had in common 
with the other angels, would needs aspire to a sin- 
gularity above all the rest.'^* And writing to the 

* Triste tamen valde est, ut patienter teratur, quatenus de- 
spectis omnibus, prsedictus frater et coepiscopus meus solus 
conetur appellari episcopus. Sed in hac ejus superbia quid 
aliud nisi propinqua jam antichristi tempora designatur? quia 
ilium videlicet imitatur, qui spretis in sociali gaudio angelorum 
legionibus, ad culmen conatus est singularitatis erumpere. Undo 
per omnipotentem dominum rogo, ne pietatis vestrse tempora 
permittatis unius hominis elatione maculari, neque tam perverse 
vocabulo ullum quoquo modo prsebeatis assensum, &c. Gre- 
gor. Mag. ad. Constant, lib. 4. Epist. 34. Cunctis Evangelium 
scientibus liquet, quod Petrus universalis apostolus non vocatur, 
et vir sanctissimus consacerdos meus Johannes vocari univer- 
salis episcopus conatur ; exclamare compellor, ac dicere, O tem- 
pora ! O mores ! et tamen sacerdotes, vanitatis sibi nomina ex- 
petunt, et novis ac prophanis vocabulis gloriantur, &c. Nullus 
Roraanorum pontificum unquam hoc singularitatis vocabulum 
assumsit, nee uti consensit, &c. Quis est iste, qui contra sta- 
tuta evangelica, contra canonum decreta, novum sibi usurpare 
nomen praesumit ? Idem. ibid, ad Mauritium. Epist. 32, 


emperorj he says, " That all those who have read 
the gospel know well, that Peter [mark reader,] is 
not called the universal apostle, and yet behold, my 
fellow priest John seeks to be called the universal 
bishop. I am now forced to cry out. Oh the times! 
and Oh the manners of men! Europe is now ex- 
posed as a prey to the barbarian, and yet the priests 
who should lie along in the dust upon the pave- 
ment, weeping and rolling themselves in ashes, 
seek after names of vanity; and boast themselves 
of their new found [this is a novelty in the judg- 
ment of a bishop of Rome,] and profane titles/^ 
And in opposition to this pride of John, he was the 
first bishop of Rome who took this title, the ser- 
vant of servants, which title his successors in 
feigned humility still use, though they usurp the 
title of universal bishop, in opposition to which he 
so styled himself, and in excessive pride have since 
added to themselves many pompous appellations. 
Again, says the same Roman bishop, " Now the 
king of pride is at the gates, and what I dread to 
speak, an army of priests and bishops stands ready 
to receive him.'^ He calls it " a superstitious and 
haughty name of universal bishop,'^ and adds, 
" Never may such foolery befall us; call a universal 
bishop, a universal enemy. '^ And again, " I speak 
it boldly, that whosoever calls himself, or desires 
to be called by others, the universal bishop, is in 
his elation of mind, the forerunner of anticlirist, 
because that in like pride he prefers himself before 

o 2 


others; for as that wicked one would seem as God, 
above all men, so will this man exalt himself above 
all bishops.'^ He plainly declares, " That none of 
the bishops of Rome ever assumed that word of 
singularity/^ &c. And this same Gregory, writing 
to John of Constantinople, deals roundly and plain- 
ly with him, saying, "When thou wast called to 
the office of a bishop, thou saidst. That thou wast 
not worthy to be called a bishop, and now thou 
wouldst have none a bishop but thyself. What 
wilt thou answer unto Christ, who is the true head 
of the universal church, in that day of judgment, 
seeing that by this name of universal thou seekest 
to enthral all the members of his body unto thy- 
self? Whom dost thou imitate herein, save only 
him, who in contempt of those legions of angels, 
which were his fellows, sought to mount aloft to 
the top of singularity, where he might be subject to 
none, and all others subject to him?'^* 

But did he not raise all this stir, and make all 
this opposition, because John had anticipated him ; 
because he had not this name and title himself?! 

* Qui enim indignum te esse fatebaris, &c. — nee stulto ac su- 
perbo vocabulo appellari consentias, — ut cuncta brevi cingulo lo- 
cutionis astringam: sancti ante legem, sancti sub lege, sancti 
sub gratia, omnes hi perficientes corpus Domini, in membris 
sunt ecclesiae constituti, et nemo se unquam universalem vocare 
voluit, &c. Idem. ibid, ad Johan. Constantinop. Epist. 38. 

t Nunquid ego, hac in re, piissime domine, propriam causam 
defendo.? nunquid specialem injuriam vindico.? et non magis 


since as he is said to be the best of all the bishops 
of Rome that came after him, so the worst of all 
that were before him. Hear what he says, writing 
to Eulogius, bishop of Alexandria: '^ You have been 
careful to advertise me, that you forbear now to 
write to any by those proud names which spring 
merely from the root of vanity; and yet speaking 
to me, you say ' as you commanded.^ Let me, I 
pray you, hear no more of this word command; for 
I know well enough what I am, and what you are. 
In degree you are my brethren, and in manners you 
are my fathers: wherefore I com^manded you no- 
thing, only I advised you, what I thought fittest to 
be done; and yet I do not find that you have per- 
fectly observed that which I desired to leave deep- 
est graven in your remembrance; for I told you, 
that you should not write in any such manner either 
to me, or to any other, and yet in the very preface 
of your epistle, you call me by that name of pride 
and vanity, ^universal pope;' which I would en- 
treat you to forbear hereafter, seeing that yourselves 
lose, whatever you give unduly to another. For 
my part, I seek to increase in virtues, and not in 
vanity of titles. That adds nothing to my honour, 
which I see taken from my brethren. My honour 
is the honour of the universal church, and the sound 
vigour of my brethren. For if you call me univer- 
sal pope, you deny yourselves to be that which in- 

causam omnipotontis Dei et causam universalis ecclcsiic ? Idem 
ad Maurit. Epist. 32. 


deed you are, in that you call me universal. But 
God forbid, let us rather put far from us these 
words, which puff up pride and vanity, and wound 
charity to the death/^* 

This is that Gregory, bishop of Rome^ who was 
so vehement in his writing against the name and 
office of universal bishop, that after his death, the 
Romanists would have burnt his works, had not one 
Peter, a deacon, restrained them by affirming to 
them, " That he often saw the Holy Ghost, in the 
form of a dove, sitting upon the head of Gregory, 
while he was writing them/' This is that Gregory 
who so earnestly cried down a universal bishop, 
that pope Gregory XIII. could not answer, but by 
giving this Gregory the flat lie. (Plessaeus.) But 
what follows from that learned authoritative confu- 
tation, but that the bishop of Rome is fallible, and 
may err? For if Gregory the Great spoke truth, 
then Gregory XIII. spoke false, in saying his doc- 
trine was a lie. If Gregory XIII. spoke true, in 
saying the other lied, and that in a matter of faith 
made necessary to salvation, then Gregory the Great 
greatly erred, in a matter that concerned the uni- 
versal church. Let them take which horn of the 

* Indicare vestra beatitude studuit, &c. Nam dixi nee mihi 
vos, nee cuiquam alteri tale aliquid scribere debere, et ecce in 
praefatione epistolae, quam ad meipsum qui prohibui, direxistis, 
superbsB appellationis verbum, universale m me papam dicentes, 
imprimere curastis. Quod peto dulcissima mihi sanctitas vestra 
ultra non faciat, &c. Idem Epist. lib. 7. Epist. 30. See also 
lib. 4. Epist. 36. lib. 6. Epist. 5. 24. 28. 30, and 31. 


dilemma they will, their infallibility lies in the 
dust; for it will much puzzle his holiness to recon- 
cile the parts of a contradiction. 

I have been a little larger on this point, both from 
councils, and in transcribing the words of these two: 
1. Because this is the main HEAD and hinge of 
our controversies. 2. Because these two were their 
own, and yet against them. 3. Because it makes it 
plain, that for six hundred years the bishop of Rome 
was not universal head, for at that time it was dis- 
claimed by themselves, as you see. 

But when was this title first assumed? and by 
whom was it first conferred upon the bishop of 
Rome, to be called universal? 

You have been told before, that Gregory the 
Great wrote letters to Maurice, the emperor, in the 
controversy between him and John of Constantino- 
ple, about the name universal. This emperor, 
Maurice, falling into dislike among the soldiers, 
one Phocas, a centurion, made himself captain of 
the mutineers, and was afterwards by them pro- 
claimed emperor. Maurice, seeing this, fled away 
with his wife and children. Phocas was crowned, 
and pursued after his own master, Maurice, over- 
took him, slew his wife and children, or some of 
them before his eyes, and afterwards caused him to 
be murdered also. Mark that this Phocas was a vile 
traitor, and a murderer of such an excellent emperor 
and virtuous man, as historians say, that Maurice was. 
A while after Phocas became emperor, Gregory, 


bishop of Rome, who had opposed the title of uni- 
versal head, departed out of this life, and Sabinian, 
a malicious detractor of Gregory and his works, suc- 
ceeded him, and continued bishop of Rome scarce 
two years; after whom succeeded Boniface IIL, 
about the year 605, who lived not (as some say^ 
above eight months, or as others, but a year, after 
he was bishop of Rome. But, in that time, he ob- 
tained what he aimed at; for the murder committed 
by Phocas upon the emperor Maurice, being not 
approved of by the bishop of Constantinople, Pho- 
cas sought to establish himself in the empire, gotten 
by blood, by the friendship of the bishop of Rome. 
Boniface, making great offers of his service to Pho- 
cas, took this opportunity to desire of him, that he 
and his successors after him, should be called uni- 
versal l^ead of all the churches of Christ, and that 
the church of Rome thenceforward should have the 
pre-eminence, and be head of all other churches. 
The terms were agreed upon. The murderer, Pho- 
cas, was confirmed in his usurpation, and the aspi- 
ring Boniface received the title of universal bishop 
of all Christian churches. And this is acknow- 
ledged by their own historians.* 

From all which, you clearly see, that it was not 
till after the six hundredth year from Christ, that 

^ Quo tempore intercesserunt quaedam odiorum fomenta in- 
ter eundem Phocam imperatorem atque Cyriacum Constantino- 
politanum. Hinc igitur in Cyriacum Phocas exacerbatus in ejus 
odium imperiali edicto sancivit, nomen universalis decere Ro- 


the bishop of Rome had this title conferred upon 
him; and that he came not to it by divine right, not 
made so by God, nor called and chosen to it by a 
general council of fathers, but by a traitor and a 
murderer. The pope giving his help to keep the 
usurper in the saddle, by way of requital, this wicked 
and tyrannical emperor lifts the pope up into the 
chair. Par nobile fratrum ! 

As his name and office of universal bishop is 
new, so are those other accumulative, pompous, and 
some of them blasphemous titles, not fit to be given 
to any mortal man. For of old, it was not so; for 
Peter, whose successor he pretends to be, had no 
such names nor titles, but styled himself a fellow 
presbyter, 1 Peter v. 1. And the canons of the 
African church of old were, that "the bishop of the 
first seat [that was Rome,] should not be called 
prince of priests, or head priest, or any such like 
name, but only the bishop of the first seat.'^* Ca- 
ranza,t in his annotations upon this canon, says: 

manam tanturn modo ecclesiam, tanquam quae caput esset om- 
nium ecclesiarum, solique convenire Romano pontifici; non 
autem episcopo Constantinopolitano, qui sibi illud usurpare prce- 
sumeret. Quod quidem hunc Bonifacium papam tertium ab 
imperatore Phoca obtinuisse, cum Anastasius Bibliothecarius, 
tum Paulus diaconus tradunt. Spondan, Epitom. Baron. Annal. 
in annum GOG. 

T«c TT^corhi K^^iS'pdLQ. Codex Canon. Eccles. Afric. Can. 39. 
t Caranz. Sum. Concil. Cartliag. 3. Can. 2(5. 


"That the African church could not give laws to 
the universal church, and therefore by this canon 
neither did nor could forbid the calling of the bishop 
of Rome, prince of priests/^ &c. But they could 
decree, that they would never call him so, nor own 
him for such, which shows that by them he was 
not so advanced. But their own canon law* for- 
bids that the bishop of Rome should be called uni- 
versal. And the sixth council at Constantinople,! 
ratifying the decree of the 150 fathers formerly 
assembled in that city, and of the 630 fathers assem- 
bled at Chalcedon, also agreed with them and de- 
creed, '' That the bishop of Constantinople should 
have equal privilege with the bishop of Rome, and 
have equal power in all ecclesiastical matters with 
him, only that he be the second to the bishop of 
Rome; and after the bishop of Constantinople, the 
bishop of Alexandria should have the next seat; and 
next to him, the bishop of Antioch; and next to 
him, the bishop of Jerusalem. ^^ By all which ap- 
pears that the bishop of Rome was not head of all 
the rest, the prince of priests, but that all the respect 
that he had above the rest, was to sit down in the 
jfirst seat, which is nothing at all to his universal 
jurisdiction; and then he had not those titles that 
now are given to him; 1. As head over all priests, 

* Nee etiam Romanus pontifex universalis est appellandus. 
Distinct. 99. c. nee etiam. 

t Surius in Coneil. torn. 2. pag. 1046. Coneil. Constantinop. 
Can. 36. 



as a king is over his judges; 2. The vicar of St. 
Peter, though now they say, not the vicar of Peter 
properly, but vicar of Christ properly, and successor 
of Peter; 3. Most mighty priest; 4. That he has 
all laws in his breast; 5. Chief magistrate of the 
whole world; 6. That his sacerdotal dignity as far 
excels kings and emperors, as gold excels lead; 
7. That all the earth is his diocese, and he the ordi- 
nary of all men, having the authority of the King 
of all kings upon subjects — that he is all in all, and 
above all; 8. " If those things that I do, be said to be 
done not of man but of God, what can you make of 
me but a god? and the prelates of the church being 
accounted of Constantine for gods, I, being above all 
prelates, by this reason am above all gods.^^* 

Likewise the power of the pope over general 
councils is a new power. It was not so of old; he 
had not the power of calling councils, but it belonged 
to, and was done by civil magistrates. The first 
general council of Nice, was assembled by the autho- 
rity of Constantine the Great; the second, at Con- 
stantinople, was called by Theodosius the elder; the 
third, at Ephesus, by Theodosius the younger; the 
fourth, at Chalcedon, by Valentinian and Mar- 

* Jus Canonic. 1. Dist 96. c. ego.c. Constanthius. 2. Distinct. 
63. 3. Juris Canon, pars 2. cans. 25. quest. 1. c. null. 4. Roma- 
nus pontifex, qui jura omnia in scrinio pectoris sui ccnsetur 
habere— Sexti. decret. p. Bonifac. 8. c. licet. 5. Dccret. lib. 6. 
Bonifac. 8. in prooemio. 6. Distinct. 9(). c. duo. 7. Glos. in c. 
11. quest. 3. si mimicus. 8. Decret. de Translat. Episc. cap. 


cian, &c. Historians tell us, that when once the 

emperors began to be Christians, from that time for- 
ward the church affairs depended upon them, and 
the greatest councils were assembled, and so still 
are, at their appointment. So Socrates.^ And in 
the council of Constance, (which Caranzat says was 
general, held A. D. 1400, and which deposed three 
popes, Gregory XII., Alexander V., John XXIV.) 
and again in the council of Basil, which began in 
the year 1431, it was decreed, ^^ That a synod has 
its power immediately from Christ, to which every 
one, of what state soever or dignity he be, yea, even 
the pope himself ought to be obedient, which if he 
be not, but shall contumaciously contemn the de- 
crees, statutes, and ordinances of the council, except 
he repent, he shall suffer condign punishment, though 
it be the pope himself.'^i And this council of Con- 
stance was confirmed by pope iSIartin V., Sess. 45. 
and the other at Basil, by pope Nicolas V. 

From all this it appears, that the main essential 
point of popery is a mere novelty, not having ori- 
ginated till after the sixth century after Christ, and 
not attained to its full power till several hundred 
years after this. So that I may with Voetius, con- 

^ Eccles. Hist. lib. 5. procem. 

t Caranz. Sum. Concil. p. 8*24, 825. 

t Primo declarat sjnodus, quod ipsa potestatem a Christo 
immediate habet, cui quilibet cujuscunque status vel dignitatis, 
etiam si papalis existat, obedire tenetur, &c. Cone. Constan. 
Sess. 4, 5. et Cone. Basil. Sess. 2. 16. IS. 


fidently affirm, that in the first six centuries, there 

become of the antiquity of popery? for there can- 
not be so much as one formal papist, where the es- 
sentials of popery are not; as where the essentials 
of a man are not, there is no man actually existent. 
But the pope, as universal head, is an essential part 
of the popish religion, without which (according to 
their doctrine) the church is no church, nor any 
one a member thereof, that does not own him and 
submit to him. Therefore the pope not being till 
after the sixth century, so long there was not one 
papist, formally and properly, in the whole world! 

This being the main pillar of popery, I have in- 
sisted the longer to prove the novelty of it; for this 
falling, the whole fabric tumbles down: as therefore 
it is not necessary that I should be so large in the 
rest, I shall but name what follows. 

Secondly. The forbidding of ministers^ marriage 
is a mere novelty. For as their own authors say, 
Syricius* bishop of Rome, who lived about the year 
388, was the first that forbad it; yet it was not then 

* Syricius primus sacerdotibus et diaconis circiter annum sa- 
lutis 388, conjugio interdixit — Non ante pontificatum Grcgorii 
VII. Anno 1074, connubium adimi sacerdotibus occidonlalibus 
potuit. Polyd. Virg. de Invent, rer. lib. 5. cap. 4. 


received and practised as a duty for them to abstain 
from marriage, but liberty of marrying was never 
denied them till Gregory VII. came to be pope in 
1074, who yet was resisted, as one that brought in 
a new custom, never received before; and the bi- 
shops of Italy ,^ Germany and France met together, 
and for this decreed that he had acted against Chris- 
tian piety, and deposed him, because among other 
things, he had divorced men from their wives, de- 
nying such as had their lawful wives to be priests; 
when yet at the same he admitted to the altars, 
w^horemongers, adulterers and incestuous persons. 

Bellarmine himself and other popisht doctors 
grant, yea, he proves by arguments, that by the 
law of God it is not forbidden that ministers should 
marry, and that for many hundred years the church 
of Rome permitted Greek priests to have and dwell 
with their wives. 

Thirdly. That religious worshipping of images 
has not been of old in the church of God, nor re- 
ceived and owned by councils, (for what particular 
persons and heretics in this point have done is not 
in this controversy so much to be minded) nor 
practised in the church for some hundred years 
after Christ, there is sufficient evidence. Bishop 
Usher in his answer to the Jesuit's challenge, says: 

* Magdeb. cent. 11. pag. 3S9. 

t Aquin. 2 da. 2 das. Q. S^. art. 11. Cajet. Opuscul. torn. 1. 
Tract. 27. Sotus lib. 7. de Justitia Q. 6. art. 2. in BeUar. de 
Cleric, lib. 1. cap. 18. 


It might well be concluded that images were brought 
into the church partly by lewd heretics, partly by 
simple Christians newly converted from paganism. 
The Gnostic heretics had images, some painted in 
colours, others framed of gold and silver, and other 
matter, which they said were the representations of 
Christ, made under Pontius Pilate, when he was 
conversant here among men; and though Eusebius* 
makes mention of the images of Paul and Peter, and 
of Christ, yet there he calls it " a heathenish cus- 
tom.'^ But they were so far from worshipping 
them in the primitive times, that a council! of an- 
cient fathers decreed about the year 325, "That 
pictures ought not to be in the church, lest that 
which is worshipped or adored, should be painted 
on walls.^^ Which law made by this council, set 
Melchior Canus,t the papist, in such a heat, that he 
alone would condemn them all, not only of impru- 
dence but impiety for so doing, for the poor man 
could not otherwise answer it. 

In the first four general councils, which reached 
to the year 451, there is nothing for the worship- 
ping of images, and yet if they had been of that 
opinion, they had had occasion from what was 
done in the Elibertine council, being about the 

* Euse. Eccl. Hist. 1. 7. c. 18. 

t Concil. Elibertin. 

t Ilia lex non imprudenter modo, verum etiam inipie, ?i con- 
cilio Elibertino lata est de tollendis imaginibus. Canus loc. 
theolog. lib. 5. cap. 4. conclus. 4. 

P 2 


same lime that the Nicene council was, and before 
the Other three. And it should seem that they 
were not worshipped in the church of Rome itself, 
for six hundred years after Christ, by the epistle of 
Gregory the Great to Serenus bishop of Marseilles,^ 
who had broken down images, and cast them out of 
his church, when he perceived some to begin to 
dote upon them too much. Though he reproves 
him for breaking them, yet he commends him for 
his zeal, and says, " that nothing made with hands 
should be worshipped — that though the people might 
have had them, whereby to gather the knowledge 
of the history, yet they might not sin in worship- 
ping the picture.'^ Judge if it were likely that at 
that time religious worship was given to images at 
Rome, when the bishop thereof condemned it as a 
sinful thing, and commends others for being against 
it. And though cardinal Bellarmine was of opinion, 
'^ That it is lawful to picture God in the church in 
the shape of a man, and the Holy Ghost in the form 
of a dove,'^ yet a greater and one more ancient than 
he, was against it, namely, pope Gregory II. whose 
epistle is quoted by Baronius, upon the year 726, 

* Indico dudum ad nos pervenisse quod fraternitas yestra quos- 
dam imaginum adoratores aspiciens, easdem ecclesiae imagines 
confregit atque projecit, et quidem zelura vos, ne quid manu 
factum adorari possit, habuisse laudavimus. Tua fraternitas, 
ab earum adoratu populum prohibere debuit; et populus in 
picturae adoratione minime peccaret. Greg. Mag. Epis. lib. 7, 
Ep. 109. 


whence it seems there was no such picture in the 
church of Rome at that time; for, says that pope, 
" In the church, God is not represented before men^s 
eyes, and the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is not 
drawn in colours, because God^s nature cannot be 
painted out, or put in sight/^* 

Moreover, at a council of 338 fathers, held at 
Constantinople, in the year 754, they were solemn- 
ly condemned; and when they were set up by the 
second council at Nice, in the year 787, they were 
degraded again of their honour by the council of 
Francfort in the year 794. 

Durant purposely sets himself to give us all the 
councils that have approved the use and veneration 
of images;! and says, the first that did so was the 
sixth council at Constantinople, (which was in the 
time of pope Agatho, about the year 673,) and 
quotes the 83d, but it is the 82d canon, J where the 
picture of Christ is commanded to be made in the 
shape of a man; but turning to the place, I find 
plainly that this canon does not at all command any 

^ Cur tandem Patrem Domini Jesu non oculis subjicimus ac 
pingimus? quoniam quis sit non novimus, Deique natura spec- 
tanti proponi non potest ac pingi. 

t Durant. de ritib. p. 31. 

t Christi Dei nostri instar hominis characterem etiam in 
imaginibus deinceps pro veteri agno statui jubciniis, ut per 
ipsum verbi Dei humiliationem mentc coniprehendontos, ad 
memoriam quoque ejus in came conversationis, ejusquo pas- 
sionis, et salutaris mortis deducamur, ojusque qucB ox eo facta 
est mundo redemptionis. Cone. Constant. VI. Can. 82. 


worship to be given to it, but only recommends the 
use of it, as an aid to the memory, w^hich is nothing 
to the popish cause of worshipping images. He 
next refers to a second Nicene council, which yet 
was 787 years after Christ, so that this might pass 
for a novelty. 

Fourthly. The doctrine of purgatory, by the con- 
fession of papists themselves, is ranked among the 
novelties brought into the church; for one of them 
says, "No true believer now doubts of purgatory, 
whereof notwithstanding among the ancients there 
is very little or no mention at all. The Greeks 
also, to this day, do not believe that there is a pur- 
gatory. Let who will read the commentaries of 
the ancient Greeks, and so far as I see, he shall find 
very rare mention of purgatory, or none at all. 
And the Latins did not all of them together receive 
the truth of this matter, but by little and little; 
neither indeed was the faith either of purgatory or 
pardons so needful in the primitive church, as it 
now is.^^* Thus far a papist, and an ingenuous one 
too, though it is rare to find one that will without par- 
tiality speak the truth; which Bellarmine does not 
use to do, for he says quite the contrary, "That all 
the fathers, both Greek and Latin, have constantly 
taught from the apostles' times that there is a pur- 

* Nemo certe dubitat orthodoxus, an purgatoriura sit, de quo 
tamen apud priscos, nulla vel qukm rarissima fiebat mentio ; sed 
et Grsecis ad hunc usque diem, non est creditum esse, &c. 
Johan. Ross, apud Polyd. Virg. de Invent. Rerum, lib. 8. cap. 1. 


gatory/^* And this cardinal is so zealous for the 
doctrine of purgatory, that he says, "That it is a 
doctrine of faith, so that he who does not believe it, 
shall never come to it, [no harm if he do not, I sup- 
pose; it is no desirable thing to be in pains, no less 
than the pains of hell, though shorter,] but shall be 
always tormented in the flames of hell/^ But the 
best of it is, that it is but a cardinal, not the Scrip- 
ture that says so. But I will set another papist 
against Bellarmine, and standing between the two, 
let him shift for himself, and get out as well as 
he can. These are the words of Alphonsus, " Con- 
cerning purgatory, there is almost no mention made 
by the ancients, especially the Greek writers, for 
which reason to this very day, the Greeks do not 
believe that there is a purgatory.'^t It is true that 
many of the fathers speak of a purgatorial fire, both 
in this life, and after; but by the fire in this life 
they understand afflictions. So Augustine, "We 
confess that in this life there are purgatory pains, — 
as loss of friends, and the calamities of this life.'^J 
So also, by a purging fire after this life, through 
which they make all saints to pass, they understand 
the last day of judgment. But the popish purga- 
tory is another thing, not invented in the days of 
Gregory I., who wrote in the end of the sixth age, 

* Bellar. de Purgat. lib. 1. cap. 15. 

t Alphons. de Castro, Advcrs. Hoeres. lib. 8. titul. Indul- 

t August, de Civitat. Dei, lib. 22. cap. 13. 


saying, ^^ Because we are redeemed by the grace of 
our Creator, we have the heavenly gift, that when 
we are withdrawn from the habitation of our flesh, 
we are presently brought to the heavenly recom- 
pense/'* And though in the writing of this pope 
there is some mention of purgatory for smaller sins, 
yet it is not the same that the papists now assert; 
for in his dialogues he speaks of the purgation of 
souls in baths, in rivers, and wind; and it was first 
bottomed upon visions and revelations, and feigned 
stories of departed souls appearing to others in this 

But above 200 years after these pretended visions, 
the council of Aquisgrant show that this was not a 
generally received doctrine, for they sum up all the 
punishments inflicted by God for sin to this life, 
and they mention two ways; " but the third,^^ say 
they, " after this life, is very fearful and terrible, 
which by the most just judgment of God shall be 
executed, when he shall say, ' depart from me ye 
cursed into everlasting fire, prepared for the devil 
and his angels.' " And yet further to discover the 
novelty of purgatory, that it was above a thousand 
years the opinion of some men only,and not an article 

* Quia authoris nostri gratia redempti sumus, hoc jam coeles- 
tis muneris habemus, ut cum k carnis nostrsB habitatione sub- 
trahimur, mox ad coelestia prsemia ducamur. Gregor. 1. in 
Job 20. 

t Capit. Aquisgran. Cone, ad Papinum Miss. lib. 1. cap. 1. 
quoted by bishop Usher, Answ. to Jes. Chall. p. 177. 


of faith generally received, the saying of Otto Fri- 
gensis, w^riting in the year of our Lord 1146, gives 
evidence. His words are these, "That there is in 
hell a place of purgatory, wherein such as are to be 
saved are either only troubled with darkness or 
decocted with the fire of expiation, SOME AF- 
FIRM.^^* Mark reader, all did not teach so, nor 
the most, but some only. 

Fifthly. That the pope's indulgences are a mere 
novelty, of which the church of God for many hun- 
dred years knew nothing, we need look for no 
further evidence, than the plain confession of pa- 
pists themselves, amongst whom I find Alphonsus 
making plain and full confession, about these indul- 
gences and pope's pardons, saying, " That of all the 
matters treated of in his whole book, there is not 
one of which the Scripture is more silent, not one 
that the ancient writers speak less of."t Though 

* Esse apud inferos locum purgatorium, in quo salvandi vel 
tenebris tantum afficiantur, vel expiationis igne decoquantur, 
QUIDAM afFerunt. Otto Frig. lib. 8. Chro. c. 26. apud eun- 

t Inter omnes res de quibus in hoc opere disputamus, nulla 
est quam minus aperte sacrae liters? prodiderint, et de qua minus 
vetusti Scriptores dixerint, neque tamen hac occasione sunt con- 
demnanda? [indulgentiae quod earum usus in ecclesia videatur 
sero receptus: quoniam multa sunt posterioribus nota, qu» 
vetusti illi Scriptores prorsus ignoraverunt. Quid ergo minim 
si ad hunc modum contigcrit de indulgentiis, ut apud priscos 
nulla sit de cis mentio? Etsi pro indulgontiarum approbatione 
sacroB ScripturoB testimonium apertum desit, tamen qui contem- 
nit, hflereticus merito ccnseatur, AlC. Alphons. de Castro. Ad- 
ver. Plojres. lib. 8. titul. Indulgcntia. 


he would not have them " therefore to be slighted, 
because the use of them has been but lately received, 
because [mark what he says,] many things are 
known to posterity, which the ancient writers were 
altogether ignorant of. What need we wonder 
then, if this be so in the matter of indulgences that 
among the ancients there is no mention of them at 
all?^^ Really this did me good to read, for I like 
that men should be ingenuous, and speak the plain 
truth. Yet when I read further, and saw that, 
though he acknowledges there is nothing for it in 
the Scripture, nor in the ancient fathers, yet he says 
that those who " set light by them, or despise them, 
should be judged heretics,^' I thought his zeal had 
carried him too far. This papist makes no attempt 
at all to go higher than pope Gregory I., in the lat- 
ter end of the sixth century, w^hen he says, " It is 
said that he granted some indulgences ;'' and from 
thence he slides as far as the Lateran council, which 
was in the year of our Lord 1215, according to 
Caranza, and from thence to the council of Con- 
stance under pope John XXIV., which was after 
the year of our Lord 1400. And this is all the an- 
tiquity that he pretends to, from whose confession, 
we might safely place this among the young doc- 
trines and practices held and used in the church of 

But let us try another of them whose business in 
his book is to give the first rise, and beginning of 
things. He also does not attempt to rise higher 


than the sixth century, to the former Gregory; but 
there he finds little to fasten upon, and therefore 
steps presently back to Boniface VIIL, who he says 
was the first that brought in the popish jubilee, 
when he gave pardons to those that visited the 
apostles' temples, in the year 1300, which jubilee 
he commanded should be observed every hundredth 
year. But when fifty years were almost expired, 
pope Clement VI. ordained this jubilee should be 
every fiftieth year, forasmuch as man's age would 
not reach the hundredth year. Lastly, pope Sixtus 
IV. about 1471, or, as my present author, 1475, 
brought it to every twenty-fifth year; " and then [I 
pray the reader to mark] the use of pardons, which 
they call indulgences, began to be famous, which 
pardons, for what cause, or by what authority they 
were brought in, or what they are good for, much 
troubles our modern divines to show.''* Reader, 

* Bonifacius VIII. — primus omnium jubileum retulit, anno 
qui fuit MCCC salutis humanae, quo poenarum remissionera iis 
prsBstabat, qui limina apostolorum visitassent. Idem autem pon- 
tifex jubileum centesimo quoque anno servari mandavit. Quin- 
quagesimo post instante anno Clemens VI. sanxit jubileum 
quinquagesimo quoque anno, cum aetas hominis vix jubileum 
ilium centum annorum attingere possit. Postremo Sixtus ejus 
appellationis quartus jubileum ad vigesimum quemquc annum 
reduxit, primusque celebravit, qui fuit annus MCCCCLXXV 
salutis, ac ita veniarum quas indulgentias vocant, jam turn usus 
Celebris esse coepit, quae qua de causa, quave ex authoritato in- 
troduclflB fuerint, aut quantum valere videantur, nostri reccnti- 
ores theologi ea de re egregic laborant ; ego vero originem, quod 


is not this a plain case? Can we desire clearer evi- 
dence of the novelty of the pope's pardons, by 
which he beguiles so many souls, and gets so much 
money into his treasury? Being so much in the 
dark himself, he consults another to seek relief; and 
the third says, " It may be many will put no great 
trust in these indulgences, because their use is but 
lately come into the church, and is so found but a 
little while ago; to whom I say, it is not certain 
who first began them; there was, however, SOME 
very ancient use of them;"* but of this he speaks 
doubtingly, and gathers it only by inference. But 
this popish author whom we cited before, confessing 
the novelty of purgatory, concludes from thence the 
novelty of popish pardons; for, says he, "As long 
as there was no fear of purgatory, no man sought 
indulgences, for all the account of indulgence de- 
pends on purgatory. If you deny purgatory, what 
need of indulgences? Indulgences began after men 
were frighted with the pains of purgatory.^t Thus, 

mei est muneris, quaeritans, non reperio ante fuisse, quod sciam, 
quam divus Gregorius ad suas stationes id praemii proposuerit. 
Polydor Virgil, de Invent. Rerum lib. 8. cap. 1. 

* Multos fortasse movet indulgentiis istis non usque adeo 
fidere, quod earum usus in ecclesia videatur recentior, et admo- 
dum sero apud Christianos repertus, quibus ego respondeo, non 
certo constare a quo primum tradi coeperint, fuit tamen, non- 
nuUus earura usus, ut aiunt, apud Romanos vetustissimus, quod 
ex stationibus intelligi potest. 

t Quamdiu nulla faerat de purgatorio cura, nemo quaesivit in- 
dulgentias, nam ex illo pendet omnis indulgentiarum existima- 


out of the mouths of these three witnesses of their 
own, we might let this pass for one of the younger 
sort, and set it amongst its fellows. 

Sixthly. I may conclude the same of prayer for 
the dead; for if purgatory be but a late device, and 
indulgences granted for their deliverance be but 
late, prayer for them to be delivered out of purga- 
tory, (which is supposed in the manner of the pa- 
pists' prayers for departed souls) cannot be of a 
longer standing, as their bishop before quoted right- 
ly argued. 

What might be alleged for the antiquity of pray- 
ing for the dead, used indeed in the church former- 
ly, is nothing to the popish prayers used now; for 
it is most evident, that they did not pray in relation 
to their being in purgatory, which they understood 
not, nor do their prayers express any such thing, 
but rather the contrary, of their being at rest, w^hich 
they could not have in purgatory. Therefore, what- 
soever prayers they were, or to what end, is not 
my work at present to inquire. Until they be 
proved to be such as popish prayers for the dead, 
the latter will stand still among the younger prac- 
tices of the church of Rome. 

Seventhly. As for the novelty of praying to 
saints, cardinal Du Perron (a man that would have 

tio. Si tollas purgatorium, quorsum indulgentiis opus orit? 
Coeperunt igitur indulgcntiGD, postquam ad purgatorii cruciatus 
aliquandiu trepidaium est. Jolian. lloflen. in Luther, ibid. 


found it, if there had been any such practice in the 
primitive churches) freely acknowledges, as Moli- 
neus who traced him in his book affirms, that " as in 
the Holy Scriptures there is neither command nor 
example for the invocation of saints; so likewise in 
the writings of the fathers, that have written before 
the first four councils, [which brings us to the year 
451] no trace is to be found of that invocation/'* 
The distinction between the saints' intercession, 
and the invocation of saints, should be carefully 
heeded: for whether the saints in heaven pray^b;* 
the church on earth, and whether the church on 
earth might pray to the saints in heaven, are widely 
difierent questions. That in the first ages it was 
accounted idolatry to invocate angels, was deter- 
mined in the thirty-fifth canon of the Laodicean 
council before quoted. 

8. To show the novelty of transubstantiation; — 
that the bread is not turned into the flesh of Christ, 
I need not stand long: for Scotus does it for me, 
who says: "That this was not a doctrine of faith, 
before the Lateran council ;''t which was in the 
year 1215. Bellarmine takes notice of this, and is 
oflended at, and helps the matter as well as he can, 
by mentioning one council, (and he names no more, 
which he would have done, doubtless, if he could,) 
and that is a council at Rome under Gregory VII., 
who was pope in the year 1073; so that according 

^ Molin. Novelty of Popery, pag. 3S8. 
t Bellar. de Euchar. lib. 3. cap. 23. 


to Bellarmine's grave admonition of Scotus, it was 
above a thousand years before that was made a doc- 
trine of faith in the Roman church itself. But 
Alphonsus, as to councils, rises no higher than the 
Lateran, as Scotus did.^ 

9. The denying of the cup to the people might 
be reckoned with the rest, for a mere novelty, hav- 
ing its rise in the council of Constance, which began 
in the year 1414; and there needs no other evi- 
dence, that this is an innovation, than the very 
words of the canon, whereby it is denied to the 
people, which are: "Although Christ administered 
this sacrament in both kinds, and though in the pri- 
mitive church the people received it in both kinds, 
yet this custom is rationally introduced, that the 
people shall only take the bread; and we command, 
under pain of excommunication, that no presbyter 
give it to the people under both kinds of bread 
and wine.^^t Thus, though Christ appointed hoth^ 
though the primitive times observed hoth^ yet these 
arrogant priests say they shall have but one, any 
thing in Christ's command, and the church's prac- 
tice, for so many hundred years, to the contrary, 

* Alphons. de Castro adver. ha3res. tit. Euchar. heres. 

t Licet Christus post cocnam instituerit, et suis discipulis ad- 
ministraverit sub utraquo specie panis et vini hoc vcncrabilo 
sacramentum, et similiter licet in primitiva ecclesia hujusinodi 
sacramentum reciperetur a fidelibus sub utraque specie, tamen 
haec consuetudo ad evitandimi aliqua pcricula et scandala, est 
rationabiliter introducta,— quod a laicis tantunimodo sub specie 
panis suscipiatur, &c. Concil. Constan. Soss. 13. 

Q 2 


{no7i obstante) notwithstanding; for this it was call- 
ed deservedly by one Concilium Non-obstantiense, 
instead of Const antiense. And yet after this, the 
council of Basil granted the use of the cup to the 
Bohemians; and again the council of Trent denied 
it; so that infallible popish councils can say and 
unsay, do and undo, and that in matters of faith. 

10. The adoration of the sacrament was after 
the doctrine of transubstantiation; for the reason of 
their worshipping of it, is because it is changed into 
Christ's body and blood. The first then being new^ 
the other cannot be old. The first was brought in 
as an article of faith, in the time of Innocent III., in 
the year 1215; and the worshipping of it, in the 
time of Honorius IIL, in the year 1216.* Behold 
its antiquity! 

11. The practice of the pope's canonizing of 
saints, is a new invention, by the confession of Bel- 
larmine himself,t who acknowledges that the first 
pope that he ever read of, as canonizing saints, was 
Leo III., 800 years after Christ. And the same 
cardinal says : " That no saints might be publicly 
invocated, who are not canonized by the pope." 
Put both together, and it will make a clear conse- 
quence, that invocation of saints, at least publicly, 

* Decret. Greg. IX. lib. 3. tit. 41. cap. 10. 

t Primus pontifex (ni forte fallor) qui sanctos legatur cano- 
nizasse, videtur fuisse Leo papa IIL; antequam fortasse fuerunt 
alise, sed non inihi constat. Bellar. de Sanct. Beat. lib. 1. cap. 8, 


was not for 800 years after Christ, by the confes- 
sion of the papists themselves. 

But whither do I tend? To run over all parti- 
culars controverted between us and them, would 
sooner swell into a folio, than be contained in a 
small duodecimo. I can therefore but name some 
other points, and defy the papists to show, that for 
five, six, seven hundred, yea, some for a thousand 
years after Christ, they were generally owned or 
received in the church of Christ. 

12. The infallibility of the bishop of Rome. 

13. That the church of Rome is the only church, 
founded by God himself, or that the church of Rome 
is the catholic church. 

14. That there is no salvation out of the Roman 

15. That all that the church of Rome delivers is 
to be believed, whether it be written in the word 
of God, or not. 

16. That the pope, or church of Rome, has power 
and authority to make doctrines of faith, necessary 
to salvation, that are not contained in the Scripture. 

17. That the pope of Rome alone, or his council 
alone, or pope and council together, ai*e the judge of 
controversies, to whom appeals from all the churches 
must be made, and in whose decisions all are bound 
to acquiesce. 

18. That the pope of Rome might judge all, but 
be judged by none, nor be blamed, though he should 
lead souls by troops to hell. 


19. That the pope of Rome has temporal juris- 
diction over princes, kings, and emperors, to depose 
them from their thrones, dispose of their crowns, 
and absolve their subjects from their oaths of alle- 
giance to their lawful princes. 

20. That the pope of Rome has authority to 
dispense with the law of God; to make that law- 
ful which God forbids, and that evil which God 

21. That the power of calling general councils is 
inherent in the pope. 

22. That the pope by himself, or legates, ought 
to be president in such councils. 

23. That all that general councils determine with- 
out his authoritative ratification, is of no force, but 

24. That the Scripture is imperfect and insuffi- 
cient, not containing in it all things necessary to 
salvation, nor for the refuting of all heresies. 

25. That it is not lawful to interpret Scripture, 
contrary to the sense of the church of Rome. 

26. That the church does not depend upon the 
Scripture, but the authority of the Scripture, even 
quoad nos, upon the testimony of the church of 

27. That the Scripture ought not to be translated 
into the vulgar tongue. 

28. That the common people are to be debarred 
from reading the Scriptures, except they have a 
license from the bishop. 


29. That the public service and prayers in the 
church, ought to be in an unknown tongue. 

30. That there are seven proper sacraments, bap- 
tism, confirmation. Lord's supper, penance, extreme 
unction, matrimony, ordination. Or that there are 
eight sacraments of order, as the order of porters, 
readers, exorcists, servitors, sub-deacons, deacons, 
presbyters and bishops; which make indeed four- 
teen or fifteen sacraments. 

31. That the sacrament of confirmation is more 
worthy than the sacrament of baptism, and is to be 
had in greater reverence, and accordingly to be ad- 
ministered only by a bishop, when baptism may be 
administered by a presbyter, or a layman. 

32. That private masses are lawful^ and in them 
both clergy and laity are to be deprived both of the 
bread and wine, except the priest who makes it, 
while by the rest it may only be seen. 

33* That the eucharist, when it is sent to the 
sick, is to be adored by all that meet it, and those 
that do not, are to be accounted heretics, and to 
be persecuted with fire and sword. 

34. That the mass is a sacrifice for the quick and 
the dead, for obtaining not only spiritual but tem- 
poral blessings, to be offered to God for health, for 
success in battles, &c., &c. 

35. That a justified person may truly and pro- 
perly make satisfaction to God for the guilt of pun- 
ishment, which remains to be expiated alter the 
fault is remitted. 


36. That the satisfactory works of the saints 
may be communicated and applied to others; ^or 
that there are works of supererogation. 

37. That absolution by a priest is so necessary 
to salvation that persons believing in Christ are 
damned^ if they die before they are absolved by a 

38. That the confirmation of bishops^ and insti- 
tution of archbishops by the pall are to be sought 
from the pope of Rome, from all parts of the world; 
without which they are no such officers, and none 
can without sacrilege execute their office. 

39. That in baptism there is an implicit vow of 
obedience to the pope of Rome. 

40. That the decretal epistles are to be reckoned 
amongst canonical scripture. 

41. That the bishop of Rome, if he be canonically 
ordained, whatever his previous character, is un- 
doubtedly made holy by the merits of St. Peter. 

42. That every transgression of the law does not 
deserve death, but that there are many sins of them- 
selves and in their own nature venial and deserving 
pardon; that the blood of Christ is not necessary to 
wash them away, but they may be done away with 
holy water, by smiting the breast, and by the bi- 
shop's blessing. 

43. That clergymen are exempted from the juris- 
diction of temporal rulers in things civil and crimi- 
nal, and that the civil judge cannot punish eccle- 
siastical persons. 


44. That the rebellion of a clergyman against a 
heretical king is not treason, or that it is merito- 
rious to kill princes excommunicated by the pope. 

45. That good works in themselves have a pro- 
portion, and condignity with the reward, and are 
meritorious from their inward worthiness, so as to 
merit a reward, as a journeyman does his wages for 
his labour. 

Papists themselves acknowledge that the first be- 
ginning of some of their doctrines they cannot tell, 
and to search for the year when every novelty was 
introduced is needless. Those enumerated above, 
are not found in Scripture, nor in the primitive 
church, some not for four, five, some not for six, 
seven, eight, nine, and even twelve centuries after 
Christ. Hence I conclude that popery is a very 
novelty, and vainly and falsely boasts of its anti- 




Is popery a neiv way, and the religion of protes- 
tants the old religion taught by Christ and his apos- 
tles? Then this is 1. A safe way, and a safe reli- 
gion; in it you may be justified, sanctified, and 
surely saved. It is the old way in which Paul, and 
Peter, and believers in the primitive times, obtained 
an everlasting kingdom and crown. Be not alarmed 
at the uncharitable and groundless doctrine of the 
papists, that out of their church there is no salva- 
tion. 2. Then it is the wisest way. The folly of 
men shows itself in the new ways of popery, and 
wherein they profess themselves to be wise, they 
are become fools; but in the old way is manifest 
the manifold wisdom of God. 3. Then it is the 
purest way. The nearer the fountain, the purer 
are the streams; the nearer the copy, the fairer is 
the writing. The church of Rome vainly glories 
in titles of holiness; ^^ the most holy pope;" "the 
holy church;" " the multitude of holy days;" " holy 
rites and ceremonies," &c. That one is holy and 
pure, which is consonant to the holy and pure word 
of God. If you are to travel, you would go the 
cleanest way. You are travelling to an everlasting 
state: the old way of faith in Christ, repentance for 


sin, inward holiness, and new obedience, taught in 
the reformed churches, agreeably to the doctrine of 
Christ, and his apostles, is the way to keep a clean 
and pure heart, a clean and pure conscience, to have 
a clean and pure conversation. 4. It is the 7iearest 
way. If you leave this way, the further you go, 
the more you are out of your way. 5. It is the 
most comfortable and most pleasant way; all the 
ways of wisdom are ways of pleasantness, and all 
her paths are peace. It may be strewed with out- 
ward troubles, briers and thorns, but there is in- 
ward peace and joy, solid, sure and lasting comfort 
to be found in it. 6. It is the only way. The way 
of faith in Christ, the way of regeneration and holi- 
ness, the way of new obedience and perseverance 
therein, is the old way to heaven, and there is no 
other. If you will choose new ways yourselves, or 
walk in new ways marked out by others, contrary 
to the good old way, you will lose God and Christ, 
and your souls for ever. 

Protestant reader, endeavour to get a right un- 
derstanding of the greatness of your mercy; that 
you were not born in an age of popish darkness; 
that you have ministers to teach you the good old 
way, and magistrates to defend you therein; that 
you are not burned at a stake for not receiving new 
popish doctrines; that you have the Bible in your 
own language, and none dare forbid )^ou to read it. 

Pray to God for the continuance of this mercy to 
you and to your children after you; that popery 



may never prevail in this happy land, but that the 
generations to come may be taught the protestant 
religion, that is, the good old way to heaven, and 
that your children, and childrens^ children may 
enjoy the Bible, and have the old truths of God 
preached to them. For their sakes pray much. 

Then walk in this good old way. If you see the 
way to happiness and do not walk in it, you will 
fall short of it. You may be protestants in opinion, 
and yet be for ever damned. A drunken protestant, 
an unclean protestant, a swearing, impenitent, unbe- 
lieving protestant, shall not be saved, because in 
opinion he is a protestant. You may refuse to com- 
mit idolatry in bowing to images in a popish chapel, 
and yet be condemned for making an idol of your 
money, and for your immoderate love of the world. 
You might renounce the pope as head, and in judg- 
ment own Christ, as only head of his church, and 
yet be damned for not believing on him, choosing 
him before all, nor loving him above all. 

Let all old corrupt things be done away; your 
old ignorance, your old false hopes, your old self- 
love, your old false peace, your old enmity against 
God and holiness. You must be cut off from the 
old stock. In a word, (for I can but name a few of 
many that might be said for the practical improve- 
ment of this subject,) crucify the old man, destroy 
the body of sin. For to keep your old hearts and yet 
think to go to heaven, is to look for a new way of 


Except you be thus made new, you may know 
the good old way, but you cannot walk in it; which 
if you do not, wo, wo, a thousand woes to you for 
ever. How fearful will be the condemnation of an 
ungodly protestant, who was told which was the 
good old and only way, and lived under the con- 
stant, plain and powerful preaching of the same 
doctrines that Christ himself and his apostles de- 
livered. I profess your case will be worse, and 
your torments will be greater, than of the heathen 
who might say. Lord, we never had a Bible, never 
heard of Christ, nor of the way of salvation; no 
ministers were sent to us, no gospel preached to us. 
Yea, worse will be your case, and greater will be 
your damnation, than of many amongst the papists, 
who have not been so plainly taught, so frequently 
instructed, so faithfully warned, so earnestly en- 
treated, as you have been. You are not told, that 
^^ ignorance is the mother of devotion,'^ as they are; 
you are not kept from reading the Scripture, as they 
are; but are pressed, urged and exhorted to it. You 
have not public worship in an unknown tongue, 
but by plain language you are warned of hell, and 
commanded, in the name of God, to forsake your 
old wicked ways. How oft have you been per- 
suaded to come to Christ, who is " the way, the 
truth, and the life?" How long has God waited? 
and will you go on in your wicked ways still ; in 
your old course of profanencss and lying, and Sab- 
bath-breaking ? in your old course of careless ne- 


gleet of God, and Christ, and your own immortal 
souls? That is an old way indeed, but it is not the 
good old way. If you will go on, take your course; 
if you will not turn to the good path, take what 
falls. But know that the way of sin leads directly 
to hell. And can you there have rest? How can 
you, under the heavy load of God^s wrath? How 
can you, under the strokes of an angry, provoked 
and revenging God? You cannot rest upon a 
bed of down, though your conscience be seared, 
when God afflicts you with the stone or plague, or 
burning fever, though all your friends be round 
about you, administering cordials and comforts. 
And can you rest in a bed of flames, in a burning 
fiery furnace, in a place more dreadful and more hot 
than is a vessel full of boiling lead, and burning 
brimstone, when your conscience shall be awakened, 
and an angry God shall frown upon you, and not 
one nigh to pity or relieve? For God^s sake, and 
for your soul's sake, as ever you would avoid end- 
less, and remediless torments hereafter, walk in the 
good old way of faith and holiness, repentance and 
new obedience now. 

And if you will now walk in this good old way, 
you shall be taken into a new covenant, and have 
new employment, better, more noble, more profita- 
ble, more pleasant than ever yet you were engaged 
in. You shall be taken into new relations, to be 
the sons of God, the daughters of God, the servants, 
people and friends of God. You shall become a 


new habitation for Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. 
You will have ground of comfort when you come 
to die. Death is the old way into another world; and 
if you walk in the good old way while you live, you 
may be comforted, if you can appeal to God, having 
the witness of a good conscience, and say, now, 
Lord, remember how I have walked before thee in 
the good path, with an upright heart. And then 
you shall enter into the new Jerusalem, where you 
shall have universal, seavsonable, eternal, and delight- 
ful rest. You shall rest from the reigning, and con- 
flicting power of sin, from the guilt and indwelling 
of sin. You shall rest from the temptations of 
Satan. He shall never trouble nor disquiet you 
more. Commission of sin is now a burden to you, 
and temptation to sin is now a burden to you, but 
the good old way will bring to rest from both. You 
shall rest from all afflictions upon your bodies. Now 
sickness is a burden that makes you restless, but 
then you shall have an aching head no more, pained 
bowels, a sick heart no more for ever. You shall 
rest from all troubles from men; from all their per- 
secutions, slanders and reproaches. You shall rest 
from repentings and mournings for sin, from all the 
pains that you are now at to mortify corruption; 
though not from loving of God, delighting in God, 
and admiring his love, nay this your love shall be one 
part of your rest. You shall rest from all doubts 
and fears, and jealousies of heart. Now you doubt, 
"Does God love me? do I love God? is Christ 

R 2 


mine, and am I his? will God pardon and save me? 
Sometimes I hope he will, and that lightens my 
heart; sometimes I fear he will not, and that is a 
heavy burden to my soul, under which I cannot 
rest/' But this good old way will bring you to a 
rest where you shall doubt no more, and fear no 
more. Can you doubt, whether it is day, when 
you see the sun shine? or that fire is hot, when 
you see it burn, and feel its warmth? No more 
shall you doubt, when you come to the end of 
your walk in the good old way, whether God loves 
you, when you shall be filled with his love, and 
feel that he loves you, and see to what a blessed 
place of rest and peace, of life, of light and joy, his 
love has brought you. 


Whereas the church of Rome accuses protestants 
of perverting and corrupting the word of God, it is 
easy to prove that the charge may be retorted with 
triumphant success. 

The insertion of an intermingled apocrypha is in 
itself sufficient proof of the correctness of this af- 
firmation. And it is further confirmed by the care 
that has been manifestly taken to render the trans- 
lation of the Scriptures a vehicle for the diffusion 
of popish tenets. One specimen will suffice: the 
word " repentance" is almost invariably translated 
"penance," even in the Old Testament, where, it 
must be confessed, it sounds oddly enough; for in- 
stance, "Therefore I reprehend myself, and do pe- 
nance in dust and ashes," Job. xlii. 6. " If the 
wicked do penance for all the sins which he hath 
committed, &c. Ezek. xviii. 21. "If they do pe- 
nance in their heart in the place of their captivity," 
&c. I Kings viii. 47. " Do penance^ for the king- 
dom of heaven is at hand," Mat. iv. 17! " that they 
should do penance^ and turn to God, doing works 
worthy oipenance^'^ Acts xxvi. 20. The design of 
this rendering is obvious.* 

* The following note on Rom. iv. 7,8, is an affecting instance 
of perversion of the word of God. 

" Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins 
are covered. That is, blessed are those who, by doing penance, 
have obtained pardon and remission of their sins, and also are 
covered; that is, newly clothed with the habit of grace, and 
vested with the stole of charity. 

" Blessed is the man to whom the Lord hath not imjmted siri. 
That is, blessed is the man who hath retained his baptismal in- 
nocencc, that no grievous sin can be imputed to him. And 


The suppression of the second commandment, in 
which the worship of images is prohibited, is usual- 
ly considered as one article of accusation against the 
Roman Catholic church. The fact is this: the first 
and second precepts of the decalogue are blended 
into one, and the tenth is divided into two. This 
division is adopted, they say, in deference to the 
authority of Augustine; be this as it may, it answers 
their purpose. In catechisms, spelling-books, and 
small works for the instruction of the young, the 
decalogue is often given in an abridged form, by 
which arrangement, the second commandment (that 
is, our second commandment,) is entirely kept out 
of sight: thus — 

1. " I am the Lord thy God; thou shalt have no 
strange gods before me. 

2. " Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord 
thy God in vain. 

3. " Remember that thou keep holy the Sabbath- 

4. " Honour thy father and thy mother. 

5. " Thou shalt not kill. 

6. " Thou shalt not commit adultery. 

7. " Thou shalt not steal. 

8. ^' Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy 

9. ^' Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's wife. 

10. " Thou shalt not covet thy neighbour's 

This is copied from Butler^ s Catechism; a work 
extensively used in Ireland. A similar abridgment 
of the decalogue is inserted in the spelling-book 

likewise, blessed is the man, who, after falling into sin, hath 
done penance and leads a virtuous life by frequenting the sacra- 
ments necessary for obtaining the grace to prevent a relapse, 
that sin is no more imputed to him." Roman Catholic Version. 


commonly found in Italian schools, but with this 
difference, that th^ fourth commandment is omitted 
as well as the second, and that instead of the injunc- 
tion to observe the Sabbath, the young Italian reads, 
'* Remember to keep holy the days of festivals T^^^ 
The following fact is perhaps known only to few; 
it deserves some imperishable record. In the year 

1685, Louis XVI. revoked the Edict of Nantes, de- 
prived the protestants of their civil and religious 
privileges, and forced hundreds of thousands of them 
to leave their native land, and seek an asylum 
where they might worship God without molestation 
and restraint. But it was soon found that protes- 
tantism, though oppressed, was not destroyed. A 
new line of policy was then adopted. The papists 
saw that they could not prevent the Scriptures from 
being read, and therefore resolved to force the 
sacred volume itself into their service, by the most 
audacious corruptions and interpolations. An edi- 
tion of the New Testament was published, so trans- 
lated^ that a Roman catholic might find in it 
explicit statements of the peculiar dogmas of his 
church. The book was printed at Bordeaux, in 

1686. It was entitled, "The New Testament of 
our Saviour Jesus Christ. Translated from Latin 
into French, by the divines of Louvain:" and the 
attestation of the archbishop of Bordeaux was pre- 
fixed to it, assuring the reader that it was '' careful- 
ly revised and corrected.^' Two doctors in divinity 
of the university of the same place also recom- 
mended it as useful to all those, who, with per inis- 

* Gilly's Travels in Piedmont, p. 1()7. Grahanic's '■^ Three 
Month's Residence in tlie Mountains east of Rome," p. 2158. It 
is observable, that though tlie tenth commanchnent is thus split 
into two, the two are aoain bkmdcd into one in tbo exj)lanations 
given in Roman Cathohc Catechisms. Is not this a tacit con- 
fession that the division is untenable P 


sion of their superiors, might read it. A few- 
quotations will show the manner in which the work 
w^as executed^ and the object which the translators 
had in view. 

In the summary of the " contents'^ of Matthew 
xxvi. Mark xiv. and Luke xxii. it is said that those 
chapters contain the account of the "institution of 
the mass!^^ Acts xiii. 2. ("as they ministered to 
the Lord and fasted^^) is thus rendered — " as they 
offered to the Lord the sacrifice of the mass, and 
fasted/^ &c. Li Acts xi. 30, and other places, 
where our English version has the word " elders/' 
this edition has ''priests.'^ 

A practice that has proved very productive of 
gain to the priesthood, is made scriptural in the fol- 
lowing manner: " And his father and mother went 
every year in pilgrimage to Jersusalem,'' Luke ii. 
41. " And not only so, but also he was appointed 
by the churches the companion of our pi Igri7nage,'^ 
2 Cor. viii. 19. " Beloved, thou actest as a true be- 
liever in all that thou doest towards the brethren, 
and towards [he pi I gin vis. ^^ 3 John 5. 

Tradition is thus introduced: — "Ye keep my 
commandments, as I left them with you by tradi- 
tion,^^ 1 Cor. xi. 2. "The faith, which has been 
once given to the saints t)y tradition,^^ Jude 5. 

That the Roman Catholic might be able to prove 
that marriage is a sacrament, he was furnished w4th 
these renderings: — " To those who are joined to- 
gether in the sacr anient of marriage, I command,'' 
&c. 1 Cor. vii. 10. "Do not join yourselves in the 
sacrament of viarriage with unbelievers." 2 Cor. 
vi. 14. 

1 Cor. ix. 5, is so directly opposed to the con- 
strained celibacy of the clergy, that we can scarcely 
w^onder at finding an addition to the text: it stands 
thus — " Have we not powder to lead about a sister, 


a woman to serve us in the gospel^ and to remem- 
her us with her goods, as the other apostles, &c. 

In support of human merit, the translation of 
Heb. xiii. 16, nnay be quoted — "We obtain merit 
towards God by such sacrifices.'^ 

Purgatory could not be introduced but by a di- 
rect interpolation: "He himself shall be saved, yet 
in all cases as by the fire of purgatory.^'' 1 Cor. 
iii. 15. 

Many other passages might be noticed. " Him 
only shalt thou serve with latria^^ i. e. with the 
worship specially and solely due to God: this addi- 
tion was evidently made to prevent the text being 
urged against the invocation of the saints ; Luke iv. 
8. " Many of those who believed, came to confess 
and declare their sins, ^^ Acts xix. 18. " After a 
procession of seven days round it.'' Heb. xi. 30. 
"Beware, lest being led away with others, by the 
error of the wicked heretics, ^^ &c. 2 Pet. iii. 17. 
" There is some sin which is not mortal, but venialP 
1 John v. 17. " And round about the throne there 
were twenty-four thrones, and on the thrones twen- 
ty-four priests seated, all clothed with albs,^^ Rev. 
iv. 4. The alb^ it will be recollected, is part of the 
official attire of a Roman catholic priest. 

But the most flagrant interpolation occurs in 1 
Tim. iv. 1 — 3. " Now the Spirit speaketh ex- 
pressly, that in the latter times some will separate 
themselves from the Roman faith, giving them- 
selves up to spirits of error, and to doctrines taught 
by devils. Speaking false things through hypocrisy, 
having also the conscience cauterised. Condemn- 
ing the sacrament of m^arriage, the abstinence 
from meats, which God hath created for the faith- 
ful, and for those who have known the truth, to re- 
ceive them with thanksgiving." 

Such was the Bordeaux New Testament. Whether 


it was actually translated by the divines of Louvain 
is doubtful. This is certain, however, that it was 
printed by the royal and university printer, and 
sanctioned by dignitaries of the church. It is pro- 
per to add, that the Roman Catholics were soon con- 
vinced of the folly of their conduct, in thus tamper- 
ing with the inspired volume. To avoid the just 
odium brought on their cause by this wicked mea- 
sure, they have endeavoured to destroy the whole 
edition. In consequence, the book is now exces- 
sively scarce. 

" Every one that doeth evil hateth the light, nei- 
ther cometh to the light, lest his deeds should be re- 
proved. ^^ John iii. 20. 

Cramp's Text Book op Popery. 




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